Hydrostatic pressure in articular cartilage tissue engineering: From chondrocytes to tissue regeneration

Benjamin D. Elder, Kyriacos A. Athanasiou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

173 Scopus citations


Cartilage has a poor intrinsic healing response, and neither the innate healing response nor current clinical treatments can restore its function. Therefore, articular cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for the regeneration of damaged tissue. Because cartilage is exposed to mechanical forces during joint loading, many tissue engineering strategies use exogenous stimuli to enhance the biochemical or biomechanical properties of the engineered tissue. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) is emerging as arguably one of the most important mechanical stimuli for cartilage, although no optimal treatment has been established across all culture systems. Therefore, this review evaluates prior studies on articular cartilage involving the use of HP, with a particular emphasis on the treatments that appear promising for use in future studies. Additionally, this review addresses HP bioreactor design, chondroprotective effects of HP, the use of HP for chondrogenic differentiation, the effects of high pressures, and HP mechanotransduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-53
Number of pages11
JournalTissue Engineering - Part B: Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering


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