Upon tissue imjary, high m.w. hyaluronan (HA), a ubiquitously distributed extracellular matrix component, is broken down into lower m.w. (LMW) fragments, which in turn activate an innate immune response. In doing so, LMW HA acts as an endogenous danger signal alerting the immune system of a breach in tissue integrity. In this report, we demonstrate that LMW HA activates the innate immune response via TLR-2 in a MyD88-, IL-1R-associated kinase-, TNFR-associated factor-6-, protein kinase Cζ-, and NF-κB-dependent pathway. Furthermore, we show that intact high m.w. HA can inhibit TLR-2 signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that LMW HA can act as an adjuvant promoting Ag-specific T cell responses in vivo in wild-type but not TLR-2null mice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy