Background: Host determinants of HIV-1 viral tropism include factors from producer cells that affect the efficiency of productive infection and factors in target cells that block infection after viral entry. TRIM5 restricts HIV-1 infection at an early post-entry step through a mechanism associated with rapid disassembly of the retroviral capsid. Topoisomerase I (TOP1) appears to play a role in HIV-1 viral tropism by incorporating into or otherwise modulating virions affecting the efficiency of a post-entry step, as the expression of human TOP1 in African Green Monkey (AGM) virion-producing cells increased the infectivity of progeny virions by five-fold. This infectivity enhancement required human TOP1 residues 236 and 237 as their replacement with the AGM counterpart residues abolished the infectivity enhancement. Our previous studies showed that TOP1 interacts with BTBD1 and BTBD2, two proteins which co-localize with the TRIM5 splice variant TRIM5 in cytoplasmic bodies. Because BTBD1 and BTBD2 interact with one HIV-1 viral tropism factor, TOP1, and co-localize with a splice variant of another, we investigated the potential involvement of BTBD1 and BTBD2 in HIV-1 restriction. Results. We show that the interaction of BTBD1 and BTBD2 with TOP1 requires hu-TOP1 residues 236 and 237, the same residues required to enhance the infectivity of progeny virions when hu-TOP1 is expressed in AGM producer cells. Additionally, interference with the expression of BTBD2 in AGM and human 293T target cells increased their permissiveness to HIV-1 infection two- to three-fold. Conclusions. These results do not exclude the possibility that BTBD2 may modestly restrict HIV-1 infection via colocation with TRIM5 variants in cytoplasmic bodies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases