Recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was used as a vector to express the major protective antigen of measles virus, the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, in order to create a bivalent PIV3-measles virus that can be administered intranasally. The measles virus HA open reading frame (ORF) was inserted as an additional transcriptional unit into the N-P, P-M, or HA- neuraminidase (HN)-L gene junction of wild-type PIV3 or into the N-P or P-M gene junction of an attenuated derivative of PIV3, termed rcp45L. The recombinant PIV3 (rPIV3) viruses bearing the HA inserts replicated more slowly in vitro than their parental viruses but reached comparable peak titers of ≥107.5 50% tissue culture infective doses per ml. Each of the wild-type or cold-passaged 45L (cp45L) PIV3(HA) chimeric viruses replicated 5- to 10-fold less well than its respective parent virus in the upper respiratory tract of hamsters. Thus, insertion of the ~2-kb ORF itself conferred attenuation, and this attenuation was additive to that conferred by the cp45L mutations. The attenuated cp45L PIV3(HA) recombinants induced a high level of resistance to replication of PIV3 challenge virus in hamsters and induced very high levels of measles virus neutralizing antibodies (> 1:8,000) that are well in excess of those known to be protective in humans. rPIV3s expressing the HA gene in the N-P or P-M junction induced about 400- fold more measles virus-neutralizing antibody than did the rPIV3 with the HA gene in the HN-L junction, indicating that the N-P or P-M junction appears to be the preferred insertion site. Previous studies indicated that the PIV3 cp45 virus, a more attenuated version of rcp45L, replicates efficiently in the respiratory tract of monkeys and is immunogenic and protective even when administered in the presence of very high titers of passively transferred PIV3 antibodies (A. P. Durbin, C. J. Cho, W. R. Elkins, L. S. Wyatt, B. Moss, and B. R. Murphy, J. Infect. Dis. 179:1345-1351, 1999). This suggests that this intranasally administered PIV3(HA) chimeric virus can be used to immunize infants with maternally acquired measles virus antibodies in whom the current parenterally administered live measles virus vaccine is ineffective.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science