Human immunodeficiency virus infection and infective endocarditis among injecting drug users

Susan B. Manoff, David Vlahov, Ahvie Herskowitz, Liza Solomon, Alvaro Muñoz, Sylvia Cohn, Sharon B. Willoughby, Kenrad E. Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infective endocarditis are serious complications of injection drug rise. To determine whether HIV infection may increase the risk of endocarditis beyond that associated with drug injection, we performed a nested case-control study among injecting drug users taking part in an ongoing cohort. We identified 26 participants with infective endocarditis between cohort enrollment (in 1988-1989) and June 1992, through reviews of medical records and death certificates. We matched each endocarditis case with up to five controls (N = 120) on enrollment date, race/ethnicity, and follow-up time. Data were taken from baseline and from one follow-up visit: the last visit before the endocarditis occurred for cases and the closest visit (± 3 months) for controls. We used conditional logistic regression to quantify the association between HIV serostatus at follow-up and subsequent endocarditis, after adjusting for a history of endocarditis or sepsis before enrollment, injection duration, current injection frequency, and a recent history of abscess at injection sites. Among current injectors at follow-up, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of developing endocarditis for HIV-seropositive subjects with ≤350 CD4 cells per μl, compared with HIV-seronegative subjects, was 2.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61-8.78]; the corresponding OR for HIV-seropositive subjects with <350 CD4 cells per μl was 8.31 (95% CI = 1.23-56.37). These data indicate that HIV-related immunodeficiency may independently increase the risk of injective endocarditis among injecting drug users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-570
Number of pages5
JournalEpidemiology
Volume7
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1996

Keywords

  • HIV infection
  • endocarditis
  • gender
  • immunosuppression
  • injection drug use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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