Human dependence on tobacco and opioids: Common factors

J. E. Henningfield, R. R. Griffiths, D. R. Jasinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The purpose of this paper is to compare the functional similarities between tobacco and opioid dependence. Relevant experimental data, clinical observations, and epidemiological findings are discussed. The behavior of cigarette smoking, as it occurs in many cigarette smokers, may be properly regarded as an instance of drug dependence or as an addiction. The research reviewed shows that many fundamental commonalities exist between tobacco and opioid dependence, adding further support to the notion that cigarette smoking is an instance of drug dependence. In this paper we have explicitly avoided equating cigarette smoking with nicotine dependence or nicotine self-administration. This approach is consistent with a conservative evaluation of the available data which show that, while nicotine accounts for many of the effects produced by cigarette smoking, clinical and experimental manipulations of nicotine administration do not affect cigarette smoking to the degree that would be predicted if nicotine were the only factor controlling cigarette smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)210-237
Number of pages28
JournalNIDA Research Monograph Series
VolumeNo. 37
StatePublished - Dec 1 1981
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

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