The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly decreased the severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and increased the life expectancy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive population. Nevertheless, patients still show persistent neurocognitive disorders due to associated structural and functional brain changes. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the significance of brain neuroimaging techniques and biomarkers in understanding the pathophysiology related to HIV infection and HAND. These imaging modalities include volumetric (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and perfusion MRI. The authors predict that with neuroimaging advances at the molecular level, it will soon be the noninvasive gold standard in brain pathology diagnosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)