Purpose: The idiotype (Id) of the immunoglobulin on a given B-cell malignancy is a clonal marker that can serve as a tumor-specific antigen. We developed a novel vaccine formulation by incorporating Id protein with liposomal lymphokine that was more potent than a prototype, carrier-conjugated Id protein vaccine in preclinical studies. In the present study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in follicular lymphoma patients. Experimental Design: Ten patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma were treated with five doses of this second generation vaccine after chemotherapy-induced clinical remission. All patients were evaluated for cellular and humoral immune responses. Results: Autologous tumor and Id-specific type I cytokine responses were induced by vaccination in 10 and 9 patients, respectively. Antitumor immune responses were mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, were Iranian lymphocyte antigen class I and II associated, and persisted 18 months beyond the completion of vaccination. Specific anti-Id antibody responses were detected in four patients. After a median follow-up of 50 months, 6 of the 10 patients remain in continuous first complete remission. Conclusions: This first clinical report of a liposomal cancer vaccine demonstrates that liposomal delivery is safe, induces sustained tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8 + T-cell responses in lymphoma patients, and may serve as a model for vaccine development against other human cancers and infectious pathogens.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research