Outcomes represent an essential part of clinical studies because they direct interpretation. Investigators should agree on outcomes that reflect their research question best. If the focus is on clinical aspects investigators should include patient-important outcomes. On the other hand, if mechanisms in the development or progression of diseases are of interest physiological parameters might be the better choice. Selection of outcomes may impact substantially on the study design and analysis because confounding factors could differ across different outcomes. Finally, existing literature should also be considered in order to select outcomes that were used in previous studies. Thereby, appreciation and summary of the overall evidence is facilitated.
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