How do patients access the private sector in Chennai, India? An evaluation of delays in tuberculosis diagnosis

L. Bronner Murrison, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Swaminathan, S. Auguesteen, N. Krishnan, M. Pai, D. W. Dowdy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


SETTING: The diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in India are characterized by heavy private-sector involvement. Delays in treatment remain poorly characterized among patients seeking care in the Indian private sector. OBJECTIVE : To assess delays in TB diagnosis and treatment initiation among patients diagnosed in the private sector, and pathways to care in an urban setting. DES IGN: Cross-sectional survey of 289 consecutive patients diagnosed with TB in the private sector and referred for anti-Tuberculosis treatment through a public-private mix program in Chennai from January 2014 to February 2015. RESULT S : Among 212 patients with pulmonary TB, 90% first contacted a formal private provider, and 78% were diagnosed by the first or second provider seen after a median of three visits per provider. Median total delay was 51 days (mean 68). Consulting an informal (rather than formally trained) provider first was associated with significant increases in total delay (absolute increase 22.8 days, 95%CI 6.2-39.5) and in the risk of prolonged delay .90 days (aRR 2.4, 95%CI 1.3-4.4). CONCLUS ION: Even among patients seeking care in the formal (vs. informal) private sector in Chennai, diagnostic delays are substantial. Novel strategies are required to engage private providers, who often serve as the first point of contact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)544-551
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Care-seeking behavior
  • Diagnostic testing
  • Patient pathways
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases


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