Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through Vif

Anna Maria Niewiadomska, Xiao Fang Yu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The arms race between virus and host is a constant battle. APOBEC3 proteins are known to be potent innate cellular defenses against both endogenous retroelements and diverse retroviruses. However, retroviruses have developed their own methods to launch counter-strikes. Most primate lentiviruses encode a protein called the viral infectivity factor (Vif). Vif induces targeted destruction of APOBEC3 proteins by hijacking the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here we review the research that led up to the identification of A3G, the mechanisms by which APOBEC3 proteins can inhibit retroelements, and the counter-mechanisms that HIV-1 Vif has developed to evade its antiviral activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHIV Interactions with Host Cell Proteins
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages25
ISBN (Print)9783642021749
StatePublished - 2009

Publication series

NameCurrent Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
ISSN (Print)0070-217X

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)


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