Hospitalizations for metabolic conditions, opportunistic infections, and injection drug use among HIV patients: Trends between 1996 and 2000 in 12 states

Kelly A. Gebo, John A. Fleishman, Richard D. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Rapid changes in HIV epidemiology and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have resulted in recent changes in patterns of inpatient utilization. Objective: To examine trends in inpatient diagnoses and mortality in HIV patients. Design/Setting/Patients: Serial cross-sectional analyses of HIV patients hospitalized in 1996, 1998, and 2000, using hospital discharge data from the Healthcare Costs and Utilization Project for 12 states. Each hospitalization was classified as an opportunistic illness, complication of injection drug use (IDU), liver-related complication, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), diabetes, or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Main Outcome Measures: Number of hospital admissions, inpatient mortality. Results: We evaluated 316,963 admissions that occurred between 1996 and 2000, with an overall mortality of 7%. Hospitalizations for opportunistic infections significantly decreased from 40% to 27% of all HIV-related admissions. The overall proportion of IDU complications remained relatively stable (6%) each year. Hospitalizations increased for liver-related complications from 8% to 13% and for chronic HCV from 1% to 5% in this period. The number of hospitalizations for cerebrovascular disease and for ischemic heart disease was relatively negligible in all years. Overall, inpatient mortality decreased between 1996 and 2000. Relatively higher mortality was observed among African Americans, Hispanics, those with Medicaid, those with Medicare, and the uninsured, however. Opportunistic infections and liver-related complications were associated with greater inpatient mortality. Conclusion: Results do not show a significant recent rise in HIV-related inpatient utilization. Admissions to treat opportunistic infections have declined precipitously, consistent with the effects of HAART. Although not dramatic, liver-related disease is an increasing cause of hospitalization in HIV+ patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-616
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number5
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • HIV
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • Hospitalization
  • Injection drug use
  • Liver disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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