Hospitalization Risk among Older Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk staging is based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). However, the relationship between all-cause hospitalization risk and the current CKD staging system has not been well studied among older adults, despite a high prevalence of CKD and a high risk of hospitalization in old age. Methods: Among 4,766 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, CKD was staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, using creatinine-based eGFR (eGFRcr) and ACR. Incidence rates of all-cause hospitalization associated with each CKD risk group were analyzed using negative binomial regression. Additionally, cause-specific hospitalization risks for cardiovascular, infectious, kidney, and other diseases were estimated. The impacts of using cystatin C-based eGFR (eGFRcys) to estimate the prevalence of CKD and risks of hospitalization were also quantified. Results: Participants experienced 5,548 hospitalizations and 29% had CKD. Hospitalization rates per 1,000 person-years according to KDIGO risk categories were 208-223 ("low risk"), 288-376 ("moderately increased risk"), 363-548 ("high risk"), and 499-1083 ("very high risk"). The increased risk associated with low eGFR and high ACR persisted in adjusted analyses, examinations of cause-specific hospitalizations, and when CKD was staged by eGFRcys or eGFRcr-cys, a combined equation based on both creatinine and cystatin C. In comparison to eGFRcr, staging by eGFRcys increased the prevalence of CKD to 50%, but hospitalization risks remained similarly high. Discussion/Conclusion: In older adults, decreased eGFR, increased ACR, and KDIGO risk stages based on a combination of these measures, were strong risk factors for hospitalization. These relationships were consistent, regardless of the marker used to estimate GFR, but the use of cystatin C resulted in a substantially higher prevalence of CKD than the use of creatinine. Older adults in the population with very high risk stages of CKD have hospitalization rates exceeding 500 per 1,000 person-years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Hospitalization
Creatinine
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Kidney Diseases
Cystatin C
Albumins
Atherosclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

@article{7b61385b6e8f4b20ac608b975f4720e5,
title = "Hospitalization Risk among Older Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease",
abstract = "Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk staging is based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). However, the relationship between all-cause hospitalization risk and the current CKD staging system has not been well studied among older adults, despite a high prevalence of CKD and a high risk of hospitalization in old age. Methods: Among 4,766 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, CKD was staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, using creatinine-based eGFR (eGFRcr) and ACR. Incidence rates of all-cause hospitalization associated with each CKD risk group were analyzed using negative binomial regression. Additionally, cause-specific hospitalization risks for cardiovascular, infectious, kidney, and other diseases were estimated. The impacts of using cystatin C-based eGFR (eGFRcys) to estimate the prevalence of CKD and risks of hospitalization were also quantified. Results: Participants experienced 5,548 hospitalizations and 29{\%} had CKD. Hospitalization rates per 1,000 person-years according to KDIGO risk categories were 208-223 ({"}low risk{"}), 288-376 ({"}moderately increased risk{"}), 363-548 ({"}high risk{"}), and 499-1083 ({"}very high risk{"}). The increased risk associated with low eGFR and high ACR persisted in adjusted analyses, examinations of cause-specific hospitalizations, and when CKD was staged by eGFRcys or eGFRcr-cys, a combined equation based on both creatinine and cystatin C. In comparison to eGFRcr, staging by eGFRcys increased the prevalence of CKD to 50{\%}, but hospitalization risks remained similarly high. Discussion/Conclusion: In older adults, decreased eGFR, increased ACR, and KDIGO risk stages based on a combination of these measures, were strong risk factors for hospitalization. These relationships were consistent, regardless of the marker used to estimate GFR, but the use of cystatin C resulted in a substantially higher prevalence of CKD than the use of creatinine. Older adults in the population with very high risk stages of CKD have hospitalization rates exceeding 500 per 1,000 person-years.",
author = "Eugenia Wong and Shoshana Ballew and Natalie Daya and Junichi Ishigami and Casey Rebholz and Kunihiro Matsushita and Morgan Grams and Josef Coresh",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1159/000501539",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "American Journal of Nephrology",
issn = "0250-8095",
publisher = "S. Karger AG",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hospitalization Risk among Older Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease

AU - Wong, Eugenia

AU - Ballew, Shoshana

AU - Daya, Natalie

AU - Ishigami, Junichi

AU - Rebholz, Casey

AU - Matsushita, Kunihiro

AU - Grams, Morgan

AU - Coresh, Josef

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk staging is based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). However, the relationship between all-cause hospitalization risk and the current CKD staging system has not been well studied among older adults, despite a high prevalence of CKD and a high risk of hospitalization in old age. Methods: Among 4,766 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, CKD was staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, using creatinine-based eGFR (eGFRcr) and ACR. Incidence rates of all-cause hospitalization associated with each CKD risk group were analyzed using negative binomial regression. Additionally, cause-specific hospitalization risks for cardiovascular, infectious, kidney, and other diseases were estimated. The impacts of using cystatin C-based eGFR (eGFRcys) to estimate the prevalence of CKD and risks of hospitalization were also quantified. Results: Participants experienced 5,548 hospitalizations and 29% had CKD. Hospitalization rates per 1,000 person-years according to KDIGO risk categories were 208-223 ("low risk"), 288-376 ("moderately increased risk"), 363-548 ("high risk"), and 499-1083 ("very high risk"). The increased risk associated with low eGFR and high ACR persisted in adjusted analyses, examinations of cause-specific hospitalizations, and when CKD was staged by eGFRcys or eGFRcr-cys, a combined equation based on both creatinine and cystatin C. In comparison to eGFRcr, staging by eGFRcys increased the prevalence of CKD to 50%, but hospitalization risks remained similarly high. Discussion/Conclusion: In older adults, decreased eGFR, increased ACR, and KDIGO risk stages based on a combination of these measures, were strong risk factors for hospitalization. These relationships were consistent, regardless of the marker used to estimate GFR, but the use of cystatin C resulted in a substantially higher prevalence of CKD than the use of creatinine. Older adults in the population with very high risk stages of CKD have hospitalization rates exceeding 500 per 1,000 person-years.

AB - Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk staging is based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). However, the relationship between all-cause hospitalization risk and the current CKD staging system has not been well studied among older adults, despite a high prevalence of CKD and a high risk of hospitalization in old age. Methods: Among 4,766 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, CKD was staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, using creatinine-based eGFR (eGFRcr) and ACR. Incidence rates of all-cause hospitalization associated with each CKD risk group were analyzed using negative binomial regression. Additionally, cause-specific hospitalization risks for cardiovascular, infectious, kidney, and other diseases were estimated. The impacts of using cystatin C-based eGFR (eGFRcys) to estimate the prevalence of CKD and risks of hospitalization were also quantified. Results: Participants experienced 5,548 hospitalizations and 29% had CKD. Hospitalization rates per 1,000 person-years according to KDIGO risk categories were 208-223 ("low risk"), 288-376 ("moderately increased risk"), 363-548 ("high risk"), and 499-1083 ("very high risk"). The increased risk associated with low eGFR and high ACR persisted in adjusted analyses, examinations of cause-specific hospitalizations, and when CKD was staged by eGFRcys or eGFRcr-cys, a combined equation based on both creatinine and cystatin C. In comparison to eGFRcr, staging by eGFRcys increased the prevalence of CKD to 50%, but hospitalization risks remained similarly high. Discussion/Conclusion: In older adults, decreased eGFR, increased ACR, and KDIGO risk stages based on a combination of these measures, were strong risk factors for hospitalization. These relationships were consistent, regardless of the marker used to estimate GFR, but the use of cystatin C resulted in a substantially higher prevalence of CKD than the use of creatinine. Older adults in the population with very high risk stages of CKD have hospitalization rates exceeding 500 per 1,000 person-years.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85069458263&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85069458263&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1159/000501539

DO - 10.1159/000501539

M3 - Article

C2 - 31311014

AN - SCOPUS:85069458263

JO - American Journal of Nephrology

JF - American Journal of Nephrology

SN - 0250-8095

ER -