In the past, partially HLA-mismatched related donor, or HLA-haploidentical, blood or marrow transplantation (haploBMT), for hematologic malignancies has been complicated by unacceptably high incidences of graft rejection or GvHD resulting from intense bi-directional alloreactivity. Administration of high doses of cyclophosphamide early after haploBMT selectively kills proliferating, alloreactive T cells while sparing non-alloreactive T cells responsible for immune reconstitution and resistance to infection. In the clinic, haploBMT with high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide is associated with acceptably low incidences of fatal graft rejection, GvHD and non-relapse mortality, and provides an acceptable treatment option for hematologic malignancies patients lacking suitably HLA-matched donors. HaploBMT with PTCy is now being investigated as a treatment of hemoglobinopathy and as a method for inducing tolerance to solid organs transplanted from the same donor. Ongoing and future clinical trials will establish the hierarchy of donor preference for hematologic malignancy patients lacking an HLA-matched sibling.
ASJC Scopus subject areas