HLA-corrected tumor mutation burden and homologous recombination deficiency for the prediction of response to PD-(L)1 blockade in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients

J. H. Shim, H. S. Kim, H. Cha, S. Kim, T. M. Kim, V. Anagnostou, Y. L. Choi, H. A. Jung, J. M. Sun, J. S. Ahn, M. J. Ahn, K. Park, W. Y. Park, S. H. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been shown to be beneficial for some patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the underlying mechanisms mediating the limited response to ICIs remain unclear. Patients and methods: We carried out whole-exome sequencing on 198 advanced NSCLC tumors that had been sampled before anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy. Detailed clinical characteristics were collected on these patients. We designed a new method to estimate human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-corrected tumor mutation burden (TMB), a modification which considers the loss of heterozygosity of HLA from conventional TMB. We carried out external validation of our findings utilizing 89 NSCLC samples and 110 melanoma samples from two independent cohorts of immunotherapy-treated patients. Results: Homology-dependent recombination deficiency was identified in 37 patients (18.7%) and was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS; P = 0.049). Using the HLA-corrected TMB, non-responders to ICIs were identified, despite having a high TMB (top 25%). Ten patients (21.3% of the high TMB group) were reclassified from the high TMB group into the low TMB group. The objective response rate (ORR), PFS, and overall survival (OS) were all lower in these patients compared with those of the high TMB group (ORR: 20% versus 59%, P = 0.0363; PFS: hazard ratio = 2.91, P = 0.007; OS: hazard ratio = 3.43, P = 0.004). Multivariate analyses showed that high HLA-corrected TMB was associated with a significant survival advantage (hazard ratio = 0.44, P = 0.015), whereas high conventional TMB was not associated with a survival advantage (hazard ratio = 0.63, P = 0.118). Applying this approach to the independent cohorts of 89 NSCLC patients and 110 melanoma patients, TMB-based survival prediction was significantly improved. Conclusion: HLA-corrected TMB can reconcile the observed disparity in relationships between TMB and ICI responses, and is of predictive and prognostic value for ICI therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)902-911
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Volume31
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

Keywords

  • PD-L1
  • homology-dependent recombination deficiency
  • human leukocyte antigen
  • immunotherapy
  • non-small-cell lung cancer
  • tumor mutation burden

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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    Shim, J. H., Kim, H. S., Cha, H., Kim, S., Kim, T. M., Anagnostou, V., Choi, Y. L., Jung, H. A., Sun, J. M., Ahn, J. S., Ahn, M. J., Park, K., Park, W. Y., & Lee, S. H. (2020). HLA-corrected tumor mutation burden and homologous recombination deficiency for the prediction of response to PD-(L)1 blockade in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Annals of Oncology, 31(7), 902-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2020.04.004