HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Drug Users in Pakistan

Mohammad Abrar Ahmed, Tariq Zafar, Heena Brahmbhatt, Ghazanfar Imam, Salman Ul Hassan, Joseph C. Bareta, Steffanie A. Strathdee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We studied prevalence and correlates of injection drug use, awareness of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and risky behaviors among drug users serviced by a nongovernmental organization catering to drug users in three Pakistani cities (Quetta, Peshawar, and Rawalpindi). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of injection drug use. Of 608 drug users, 99.8% were male; median age was 32 years, and 44% were married. Most (79.8%) were Pakistani; 15.3% were Afghani. The majority used heroin (98.7%), mostly by inhalation; 15.2% injected drugs. Only 41% had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 30% had been paid for donating blood. Injection drug use and needle sharing were highest in Quetta. Injecting drug users (IDUs) were nearly twice as likely to have donated blood and to have heard about HIV/AIDS compared to other drug users. Interventions to discourage transitions to injection, increase HIV testing, and safeguard the blood supply in Pakistan are urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-329
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Urban Health
Volume80
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2003

Fingerprint

Pakistan
Risk-Taking
Drug Users
risk behavior
drug use
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV
drug
Injections
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Needle Sharing
Heroin
Inhalation
Logistic Models
non-governmental organization
Regression Analysis
Organizations
regression analysis
logistics
supply

Keywords

  • Afghanistan
  • Blood donation
  • Heroin
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Injection drug use
  • Pakistan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Ahmed, M. A., Zafar, T., Brahmbhatt, H., Imam, G., Hassan, S. U., Bareta, J. C., & Strathdee, S. A. (2003). HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Drug Users in Pakistan. Journal of Urban Health, 80(2), 321-329. https://doi.org/10.1093/jurban/jtg034

HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Drug Users in Pakistan. / Ahmed, Mohammad Abrar; Zafar, Tariq; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Imam, Ghazanfar; Hassan, Salman Ul; Bareta, Joseph C.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

In: Journal of Urban Health, Vol. 80, No. 2, 06.2003, p. 321-329.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ahmed, MA, Zafar, T, Brahmbhatt, H, Imam, G, Hassan, SU, Bareta, JC & Strathdee, SA 2003, 'HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Drug Users in Pakistan', Journal of Urban Health, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 321-329. https://doi.org/10.1093/jurban/jtg034
Ahmed, Mohammad Abrar ; Zafar, Tariq ; Brahmbhatt, Heena ; Imam, Ghazanfar ; Hassan, Salman Ul ; Bareta, Joseph C. ; Strathdee, Steffanie A. / HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Drug Users in Pakistan. In: Journal of Urban Health. 2003 ; Vol. 80, No. 2. pp. 321-329.
@article{0096599ec51541daa42ca2362541c518,
title = "HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Drug Users in Pakistan",
abstract = "We studied prevalence and correlates of injection drug use, awareness of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and risky behaviors among drug users serviced by a nongovernmental organization catering to drug users in three Pakistani cities (Quetta, Peshawar, and Rawalpindi). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of injection drug use. Of 608 drug users, 99.8{\%} were male; median age was 32 years, and 44{\%} were married. Most (79.8{\%}) were Pakistani; 15.3{\%} were Afghani. The majority used heroin (98.7{\%}), mostly by inhalation; 15.2{\%} injected drugs. Only 41{\%} had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 30{\%} had been paid for donating blood. Injection drug use and needle sharing were highest in Quetta. Injecting drug users (IDUs) were nearly twice as likely to have donated blood and to have heard about HIV/AIDS compared to other drug users. Interventions to discourage transitions to injection, increase HIV testing, and safeguard the blood supply in Pakistan are urgently needed.",
keywords = "Afghanistan, Blood donation, Heroin, HIV/AIDS, Injection drug use, Pakistan",
author = "Ahmed, {Mohammad Abrar} and Tariq Zafar and Heena Brahmbhatt and Ghazanfar Imam and Hassan, {Salman Ul} and Bareta, {Joseph C.} and Strathdee, {Steffanie A.}",
year = "2003",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1093/jurban/jtg034",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "80",
pages = "321--329",
journal = "Journal of Urban Health",
issn = "1099-3460",
publisher = "Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Injection Drug Use among Drug Users in Pakistan

AU - Ahmed, Mohammad Abrar

AU - Zafar, Tariq

AU - Brahmbhatt, Heena

AU - Imam, Ghazanfar

AU - Hassan, Salman Ul

AU - Bareta, Joseph C.

AU - Strathdee, Steffanie A.

PY - 2003/6

Y1 - 2003/6

N2 - We studied prevalence and correlates of injection drug use, awareness of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and risky behaviors among drug users serviced by a nongovernmental organization catering to drug users in three Pakistani cities (Quetta, Peshawar, and Rawalpindi). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of injection drug use. Of 608 drug users, 99.8% were male; median age was 32 years, and 44% were married. Most (79.8%) were Pakistani; 15.3% were Afghani. The majority used heroin (98.7%), mostly by inhalation; 15.2% injected drugs. Only 41% had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 30% had been paid for donating blood. Injection drug use and needle sharing were highest in Quetta. Injecting drug users (IDUs) were nearly twice as likely to have donated blood and to have heard about HIV/AIDS compared to other drug users. Interventions to discourage transitions to injection, increase HIV testing, and safeguard the blood supply in Pakistan are urgently needed.

AB - We studied prevalence and correlates of injection drug use, awareness of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and risky behaviors among drug users serviced by a nongovernmental organization catering to drug users in three Pakistani cities (Quetta, Peshawar, and Rawalpindi). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of injection drug use. Of 608 drug users, 99.8% were male; median age was 32 years, and 44% were married. Most (79.8%) were Pakistani; 15.3% were Afghani. The majority used heroin (98.7%), mostly by inhalation; 15.2% injected drugs. Only 41% had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 30% had been paid for donating blood. Injection drug use and needle sharing were highest in Quetta. Injecting drug users (IDUs) were nearly twice as likely to have donated blood and to have heard about HIV/AIDS compared to other drug users. Interventions to discourage transitions to injection, increase HIV testing, and safeguard the blood supply in Pakistan are urgently needed.

KW - Afghanistan

KW - Blood donation

KW - Heroin

KW - HIV/AIDS

KW - Injection drug use

KW - Pakistan

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0042477894&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0042477894&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/jurban/jtg034

DO - 10.1093/jurban/jtg034

M3 - Article

C2 - 12791807

AN - SCOPUS:0042477894

VL - 80

SP - 321

EP - 329

JO - Journal of Urban Health

JF - Journal of Urban Health

SN - 1099-3460

IS - 2

ER -