HIV neuropathy: Insights in the pathology of HIV peripheral nerve disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

HIV-associated neuropathies (HIV-N) have become the most frequent neurological disorder associated with HIV infection. The most common forms of HIV-N are the distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) and antiretroviral toxic neuropathies (ATN), disorders characterized mostly by sensory symptoms that include spontaneous or evoked pain that follow a subacute or chronic course. The main pathological features that characterize DSP and ATN include "dying back" axonal degeneration of long axons in distal regions, loss of unmyelinated fibers, and variable degree of macrophage infiltration in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia. Marked activation of macrophages as well as the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines appear to be the main immunopathogenic factors in DSP. Interference with DNA synthesis and mitochondrial abnormalities produced by nucleoside anti-retrovirals have been hypothesized as pathogenic factors involved in ATN. The use of skin biopsy has become a useful tool in the evaluation of HIV-N. Reduction in fiber density, increased frequency of fiber varicosities and fiber fragmentation are prominent features of skin biopsies from patients with HIV-N. Other forms of HIV-N include acute or chronic inflammatory polyneuropathies, uncommon disorders that may ocur during seroconversion or early stages of HIV infection. Opportunisitic infections, mostly associated with cytomegalovirus or herpes zoster virus infection occur in late stages of AIDS and produce characteristic clinical features such as mononeuritis multiple or radiculopathies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-27
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Peripheral Nervous System
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Polyneuropathies
HIV
Pathology
Poisons
HIV Infections
Mononeuropathies
Biopsy
Skin
Radiculopathy
Human Herpesvirus 3
Macrophage Activation
Spinal Ganglia
Virus Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Cytomegalovirus
Mitochondrial DNA
Peripheral Nerves
Nucleosides
Axons

Keywords

  • Dorsal root ganglia
  • HIV neuropathy
  • Macrophage
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Skin biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

@article{0a75985681a7456aa85a0786e94c36c9,
title = "HIV neuropathy: Insights in the pathology of HIV peripheral nerve disease",
abstract = "HIV-associated neuropathies (HIV-N) have become the most frequent neurological disorder associated with HIV infection. The most common forms of HIV-N are the distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) and antiretroviral toxic neuropathies (ATN), disorders characterized mostly by sensory symptoms that include spontaneous or evoked pain that follow a subacute or chronic course. The main pathological features that characterize DSP and ATN include {"}dying back{"} axonal degeneration of long axons in distal regions, loss of unmyelinated fibers, and variable degree of macrophage infiltration in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia. Marked activation of macrophages as well as the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines appear to be the main immunopathogenic factors in DSP. Interference with DNA synthesis and mitochondrial abnormalities produced by nucleoside anti-retrovirals have been hypothesized as pathogenic factors involved in ATN. The use of skin biopsy has become a useful tool in the evaluation of HIV-N. Reduction in fiber density, increased frequency of fiber varicosities and fiber fragmentation are prominent features of skin biopsies from patients with HIV-N. Other forms of HIV-N include acute or chronic inflammatory polyneuropathies, uncommon disorders that may ocur during seroconversion or early stages of HIV infection. Opportunisitic infections, mostly associated with cytomegalovirus or herpes zoster virus infection occur in late stages of AIDS and produce characteristic clinical features such as mononeuritis multiple or radiculopathies.",
keywords = "Dorsal root ganglia, HIV neuropathy, Macrophage, Polyneuropathy, Skin biopsy",
author = "Pardo-Villamizar, {Carlos A} and McArthur, {Justin Charles} and Griffin, {John W.}",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1046/j.1529-8027.2001.006001021.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "21--27",
journal = "Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System",
issn = "1085-9489",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - HIV neuropathy

T2 - Insights in the pathology of HIV peripheral nerve disease

AU - Pardo-Villamizar, Carlos A

AU - McArthur, Justin Charles

AU - Griffin, John W.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - HIV-associated neuropathies (HIV-N) have become the most frequent neurological disorder associated with HIV infection. The most common forms of HIV-N are the distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) and antiretroviral toxic neuropathies (ATN), disorders characterized mostly by sensory symptoms that include spontaneous or evoked pain that follow a subacute or chronic course. The main pathological features that characterize DSP and ATN include "dying back" axonal degeneration of long axons in distal regions, loss of unmyelinated fibers, and variable degree of macrophage infiltration in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia. Marked activation of macrophages as well as the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines appear to be the main immunopathogenic factors in DSP. Interference with DNA synthesis and mitochondrial abnormalities produced by nucleoside anti-retrovirals have been hypothesized as pathogenic factors involved in ATN. The use of skin biopsy has become a useful tool in the evaluation of HIV-N. Reduction in fiber density, increased frequency of fiber varicosities and fiber fragmentation are prominent features of skin biopsies from patients with HIV-N. Other forms of HIV-N include acute or chronic inflammatory polyneuropathies, uncommon disorders that may ocur during seroconversion or early stages of HIV infection. Opportunisitic infections, mostly associated with cytomegalovirus or herpes zoster virus infection occur in late stages of AIDS and produce characteristic clinical features such as mononeuritis multiple or radiculopathies.

AB - HIV-associated neuropathies (HIV-N) have become the most frequent neurological disorder associated with HIV infection. The most common forms of HIV-N are the distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) and antiretroviral toxic neuropathies (ATN), disorders characterized mostly by sensory symptoms that include spontaneous or evoked pain that follow a subacute or chronic course. The main pathological features that characterize DSP and ATN include "dying back" axonal degeneration of long axons in distal regions, loss of unmyelinated fibers, and variable degree of macrophage infiltration in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia. Marked activation of macrophages as well as the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines appear to be the main immunopathogenic factors in DSP. Interference with DNA synthesis and mitochondrial abnormalities produced by nucleoside anti-retrovirals have been hypothesized as pathogenic factors involved in ATN. The use of skin biopsy has become a useful tool in the evaluation of HIV-N. Reduction in fiber density, increased frequency of fiber varicosities and fiber fragmentation are prominent features of skin biopsies from patients with HIV-N. Other forms of HIV-N include acute or chronic inflammatory polyneuropathies, uncommon disorders that may ocur during seroconversion or early stages of HIV infection. Opportunisitic infections, mostly associated with cytomegalovirus or herpes zoster virus infection occur in late stages of AIDS and produce characteristic clinical features such as mononeuritis multiple or radiculopathies.

KW - Dorsal root ganglia

KW - HIV neuropathy

KW - Macrophage

KW - Polyneuropathy

KW - Skin biopsy

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035083276&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035083276&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1046/j.1529-8027.2001.006001021.x

DO - 10.1046/j.1529-8027.2001.006001021.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 11293804

AN - SCOPUS:0035083276

VL - 6

SP - 21

EP - 27

JO - Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System

JF - Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System

SN - 1085-9489

IS - 1

ER -