The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy to control HIV infection has led to the emergence of an older HIV population who are at risk of chronic diseases. Through a comprehensive search of major databases, this Review summarises information about the associations between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and HIV infection. Asthma and COPD are more prevalent in HIV-infected populations; 16-20% of individuals with HIV infection have asthma or COPD, and poorly controlled HIV infection worsens spirometric and diffusing capacity measurements, and accelerates lung function decline by about 55-75 mL/year. Up to 21% of HIV-infected individuals have obstructive ventilatory defects and reduced diffusing capacity is seen in more than 50% of HIV-infected populations. Specific pharmacotherapy considerations are needed to care for HIV-infected populations with asthma or COPD-protease inhibitor regimens to treat HIV (such as ritonavir) can result in systemic accumulation of inhaled corticosteroids and might increase pneumonia risk, exacerbating the toxicity of this therapy. Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to have a heightened awareness of the increased risk and manifestations of obstructive lung diseases in HIV-infected patients and specific therapeutic considerations to care for this population. Screening spirometry and tests of diffusing capacity might be beneficial in HIV-infected people with a history of smoking or respiratory symptoms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine