AIDS dementia is characterized by neuronal loss in association with synaptic damage. A central predictor for clinical onset of these symptoms is the infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into CNS parenchyma. Chronic HIV-1 infection of monocytes also allows these cells to serve as reservoirs for persistent viral infection. Using a coculture of endothelial cells and astrocytes that models several aspects of the human blood-brain barrier, we examined the mechanism whereby the HIV-derived factor Tat may facilitate monocyte transmigration. We demonstrate that treatment of cocultures on the astrocyte side with HIV-1 Tat induced significant monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 protein. Astrocytes, but not endothelial cells, were the source of this MCP-1 expression. Supernatants from Tat-treated cocultures induced significant monocyte transmigration, which was detected by 2.5 h after the addition of PBMC. Pretreatment of the supernatants from Tat- stimulated cocultures with an Ab to MCP-1 completely blocked monocyte transmigration. Flow cytometric analysis of Tat-stimulated PBMC demonstrated that Tat upregulated expression of the chemokine receptor, CCR5, on monocytes in a time-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that HIV-1 Tat may facilitate the recruitment of monocytes into the CNS by inducing MCP-1 expression in astrocytes. These recruited monocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated AIDS encephalitis and dementia.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|State||Published - Sep 1 1999|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy