HIV-1 incidence among male workers at a sugar estate in rural Malawi

Newton I. Kumwenda, Taha E. Taha, Donald R. Hoover, Diane Markakis, George N. Liomba, John D. Chiphangwi, David D. Celentano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To determine incidence of HIV and associated risk factors in two cohorts of men working at a sugar estate in rural Malawi. Design: Prospective studies. Methods: After counseling and obtaining informed consent, male workers were tested for HIV-1 and syphilis. Baseline HIV-seronegative men were enrolled in two follow-up studies in 1994 and 1998, and were retested for HIV and syphilis at 6-month follow-up visits. Demographic, behavioral, and medical history was collected at baseline. Cumulative HIV incidence based on Kaplan-Meier methods was estimated. HIV incidence was also estimated per 100 person-years (p-y). Crude and adjusted rate ratios for the association of risk factors with incident HIV infection were obtained using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: HIV prevalence was 24.3% among 1692 men screened in 1994 and 21.0% among 1349 men screened in 1998 (p < .03). HIV incidence was extremely high during 1994 to 1995 (17.1% for that 1-year period). Incidence dramatically declined in 1996, averaging about 3.5% per year from 1996 through 1999. Among men enrolled in the 1998 cohort, HIV incidence during 1998 to 1999 was 3.8%. After controlling for potential confounders reactive syphilis was associated with a twofold risk of HIV acquisition in each cohort. Conclusions: Urgent preventive measures are needed to control the spread of HIV in this economically important occupational cohort. In addition to conventional educational messages to reduce risky sexual behavior, treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases should be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)202-208
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2001


  • HIV incidence
  • Malawi
  • Occupational cohort

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'HIV-1 incidence among male workers at a sugar estate in rural Malawi'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this