History of the 3Rs in toxicity testing: From Russell and burch to 21st century toxicology

Martin L. Stephens, Nina S. Mak

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationReducing, Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing
EditorsDavid Allen, Michael Waters
Pages1-43
Number of pages43
StatePublished - Apr 14 2014

Publication series

NameIssues in Toxicology
ISSN (Print)1757-7179
ISSN (Electronic)1757-7187

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Stephens, M. L., & Mak, N. S. (2014). History of the 3Rs in toxicity testing: From Russell and burch to 21st century toxicology. In D. Allen, & M. Waters (Eds.), Reducing, Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing (pp. 1-43). (Issues in Toxicology).