Higher Energy and Zinc Intakes from Complementary Feeding Are Associated with Decreased Risk of Undernutrition in Children from South America, Africa, and Asia

Bruna L.L. MacIel, Priscila N. Costa, José Q. Filho, Samilly A. Ribeiro, Francisco A.P. Rodrigues, Alberto M. Soares, Francisco S. Júnior, Ramya Ambikapathi, Elizabeth T.R. McQuade, Margaret Kosek, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pascal Bessong, Gangadeep Kang, Sanjaya Shresthra, Estomih Mduma, Eliwaza Bayo, Richard L. Guerrant, Laura E. Caulfield, Aldo A.M. Lima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Few studies have focused on quantitatively analyzing nutrients from infant diets, compromising complementary feeding evaluation and health promotion worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to describe dietary intake in infants from 9 to 24 mo of age, determining nutrient intakes associated with the risk of underweight, wasting, and stunting. Methods: Usual nutrient intakes from complementary feeding were determined by 24-h recalls collected when infants were 9-24 mo of age in communities from 7 low- and middle-income countries: Brazil (n = 169), Peru (n = 199), South Africa (n = 221), Tanzania (n = 210), Bangladesh (n = 208), India (n = 227), and Nepal (n = 229), totaling 1463 children and 22,282 food recalls. Intakes were corrected for within- and between-person variance and energy intake. Multivariable regression models were constructed to determine nutrient intakes associated with the development of underweight, wasting, and stunting at 12, 18, and 24 mo of age. Results: Children with malnutrition presented significantly lower intakes of energy and zinc at 12, 18, and 24 mo of age, ranging from -16.4% to -25.9% for energy and -2.3% to -48.8% for zinc. Higher energy intakes decreased the risk of underweight at 12 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.96] and 24 mo (AOR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.96), and wasting at 18 (AOR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99) and 24 mo (AOR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.92). Higher zinc intakes decreased the risk of underweight (AOR: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.55) and wasting (AOR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.92) at 12 mo, and wasting (AOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.76) at 24 mo. Conclusions: Higher intakes of energy and zinc in complementary feeding were associated with decreased risk of undernutrition in the studied children. Data suggest these are characteristics to be improved in children's complementary feeding across countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-178
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume151
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Keywords

  • child nutrition
  • dietary intake
  • energy
  • nutrient intake
  • zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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