Objective: To evaluate the presence of and estimate risk factors for reactivation of latent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Methods: Data from 898 women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) were used to evaluate cervical HPV latency and reactivation. Prior exposure to HPV types (16, 18, 31, 35, and 45) was determined by serologic testing at enrollment, and cervical shedding of HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction at 6-month intervals. Human papillomavirus cervical shedding and sexual history were used to estimate rates of reactivation and recurrence. Repeated measures survival analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for reactivation and recurrence. Rates of total HPV shedding (recurrence and reactivation) during follow-up were assessed by HIV status and rate ratios were calculated. Results: Reactivation of latent HPV infections was observed in HIV-infected women, but few reactivation events were identified in HIV-uninfected women. Factors consistently associated with reactivation in HIV-infected women included CD4 count less than 200/mm and age younger than 35 years. Women infected with HIV had 1.8 to 8.2 times higher rates of viral shedding (reactivation plus recurrence) compared with HIV-uninfected women. Conclusion: Women with a history of cervical HPV infection may be at risk of reactivation of latent viral infection even in the absence of sexual activity, and this risk is higher in women with HIV infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology