High prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic risk factors in Guatemala: A population-based study

A. Rivera-Andrade, M. F. Kroker-Lobos, M. Lazo, N. D. Freedman, J. W. Smith, O. Torres, K. A. McGlynn, J. D. Groopman, E. Guallar, M. Ramirez-Zea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: There are no data on the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in general population samples in Guatemala or in other Central American countries. The prevalence and distribution of NAFLD and its associated risk factors were evaluated in a population-based sample of adults in Guatemala. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 411 men and women 40 years of age or older residing in urban and rural areas of Guatemala. Metabolic outcomes included obesity, central obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Liver disease outcomes included elevated liver enzymes, elevated Fatty Liver Index (FLI), and elevated FIB-4 score. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity, central obesity, diabetes, and MetS were 30.9, 74.3, 21.6, and 64.2%, respectively. The fully-adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI) for obesity, central obesity, diabetes, and MetS comparing women to men were 2.83 (1.86–4.30), 1.72 (1.46–2.02), 1.18 (1.03–1.34), and 1.87 (1.53–2.29), respectively. The overall prevalence of elevated liver enzymes (ALT or AST), elevated FLI, and elevated FIB-4 scores were 38.4, 60.1, and 4.1%, respectively. The fully-adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI) for elevated liver enzymes (either ALT or AST) and elevated FLI score comparing women to men were 2.99 (1.84–4.86) and 1.47 (1.18–1.84), respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and liver outcomes in this general population study was very high. The prevalence of metabolic and liver abnormalities was particularly high among women, an observation that could explain the atypical 1:1 male to female ratio of liver cancer in Guatemala.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-200
Number of pages10
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume29
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2019

Keywords

  • Central America
  • Cross-sectional study
  • Diabetes
  • Guatemala
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'High prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic risk factors in Guatemala: A population-based study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this