High prevalence of HIV, HIV/hepatitis CvVirus coinfection, and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Chennai, India: A cause for concern

Sunil Solomon, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Shruti Hemendra Mehta, Conjeevaram K. Vasudevan, Kailapuri G. Murugavel, Easter Thamburaj, Santhanam Anand, M. Suresh Kumar, Carl A Latkin, Suniti Solomon, David D Celentano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfections and current risk behaviors among HIV-positive and -negative injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, India. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a convenience sample of 912 IDUs recruited between March 2004 and April 2005. Specimens were tested for HIV, HBV, and HCV Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance estimates. Results: The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anti-HCV were 29.8%, 11.1 %, and 62.1 %, respectively. Among HIVinfected IDUs, prevalence of coinfection with anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen/anti-HCV were 86% and 9.2%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, injecting at a dealer's place (PR: 1.57) and duration of injection drug use al 1 years (PR: 3.02) were positively associated with prevalent HIV infection. Contrastingly, alcohol consumption ≥1 per week (PR: 0.55) was negatively associated with HIV. HIV-positive IDUs were as or more likely compared with HIVnegative IDUs to report recent high-risk injection-related behaviors. Conclusions: There is a high burden of HIV, HCV, and HBV among IDUs that needs to be addressed by improving access to therapies for these infections; furthermore, preventive measures are urgently needed to prevent further spread of HV, HBV, and HCV in this vulnerable population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-332
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2008

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Risk-Taking
Drug Users
Coinfection
Hepatitis
India
Hepacivirus
HIV
Injections
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Vulnerable Populations
Alcohol Drinking
HIV Infections
Multivariate Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Infection
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • HIV prevalence
  • India
  • Injection drug use
  • Risk behaviors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

High prevalence of HIV, HIV/hepatitis CvVirus coinfection, and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Chennai, India : A cause for concern. / Solomon, Sunil; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Mehta, Shruti Hemendra; Vasudevan, Conjeevaram K.; Murugavel, Kailapuri G.; Thamburaj, Easter; Anand, Santhanam; Kumar, M. Suresh; Latkin, Carl A; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 49, No. 3, 11.2008, p. 327-332.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Solomon, Sunil ; Srikrishnan, Aylur K. ; Mehta, Shruti Hemendra ; Vasudevan, Conjeevaram K. ; Murugavel, Kailapuri G. ; Thamburaj, Easter ; Anand, Santhanam ; Kumar, M. Suresh ; Latkin, Carl A ; Solomon, Suniti ; Celentano, David D. / High prevalence of HIV, HIV/hepatitis CvVirus coinfection, and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Chennai, India : A cause for concern. In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2008 ; Vol. 49, No. 3. pp. 327-332.
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abstract = "Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfections and current risk behaviors among HIV-positive and -negative injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, India. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a convenience sample of 912 IDUs recruited between March 2004 and April 2005. Specimens were tested for HIV, HBV, and HCV Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance estimates. Results: The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anti-HCV were 29.8{\%}, 11.1 {\%}, and 62.1 {\%}, respectively. Among HIVinfected IDUs, prevalence of coinfection with anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen/anti-HCV were 86{\%} and 9.2{\%}, respectively. In multivariate analysis, injecting at a dealer's place (PR: 1.57) and duration of injection drug use al 1 years (PR: 3.02) were positively associated with prevalent HIV infection. Contrastingly, alcohol consumption ≥1 per week (PR: 0.55) was negatively associated with HIV. HIV-positive IDUs were as or more likely compared with HIVnegative IDUs to report recent high-risk injection-related behaviors. Conclusions: There is a high burden of HIV, HCV, and HBV among IDUs that needs to be addressed by improving access to therapies for these infections; furthermore, preventive measures are urgently needed to prevent further spread of HV, HBV, and HCV in this vulnerable population.",
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T1 - High prevalence of HIV, HIV/hepatitis CvVirus coinfection, and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Chennai, India

T2 - A cause for concern

AU - Solomon, Sunil

AU - Srikrishnan, Aylur K.

AU - Mehta, Shruti Hemendra

AU - Vasudevan, Conjeevaram K.

AU - Murugavel, Kailapuri G.

AU - Thamburaj, Easter

AU - Anand, Santhanam

AU - Kumar, M. Suresh

AU - Latkin, Carl A

AU - Solomon, Suniti

AU - Celentano, David D

PY - 2008/11

Y1 - 2008/11

N2 - Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfections and current risk behaviors among HIV-positive and -negative injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, India. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a convenience sample of 912 IDUs recruited between March 2004 and April 2005. Specimens were tested for HIV, HBV, and HCV Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance estimates. Results: The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anti-HCV were 29.8%, 11.1 %, and 62.1 %, respectively. Among HIVinfected IDUs, prevalence of coinfection with anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen/anti-HCV were 86% and 9.2%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, injecting at a dealer's place (PR: 1.57) and duration of injection drug use al 1 years (PR: 3.02) were positively associated with prevalent HIV infection. Contrastingly, alcohol consumption ≥1 per week (PR: 0.55) was negatively associated with HIV. HIV-positive IDUs were as or more likely compared with HIVnegative IDUs to report recent high-risk injection-related behaviors. Conclusions: There is a high burden of HIV, HCV, and HBV among IDUs that needs to be addressed by improving access to therapies for these infections; furthermore, preventive measures are urgently needed to prevent further spread of HV, HBV, and HCV in this vulnerable population.

AB - Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfections and current risk behaviors among HIV-positive and -negative injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, India. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a convenience sample of 912 IDUs recruited between March 2004 and April 2005. Specimens were tested for HIV, HBV, and HCV Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance estimates. Results: The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anti-HCV were 29.8%, 11.1 %, and 62.1 %, respectively. Among HIVinfected IDUs, prevalence of coinfection with anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen/anti-HCV were 86% and 9.2%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, injecting at a dealer's place (PR: 1.57) and duration of injection drug use al 1 years (PR: 3.02) were positively associated with prevalent HIV infection. Contrastingly, alcohol consumption ≥1 per week (PR: 0.55) was negatively associated with HIV. HIV-positive IDUs were as or more likely compared with HIVnegative IDUs to report recent high-risk injection-related behaviors. Conclusions: There is a high burden of HIV, HCV, and HBV among IDUs that needs to be addressed by improving access to therapies for these infections; furthermore, preventive measures are urgently needed to prevent further spread of HV, HBV, and HCV in this vulnerable population.

KW - Hepatitis B virus

KW - Hepatitis C virus

KW - HIV prevalence

KW - India

KW - Injection drug use

KW - Risk behaviors

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