High Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and temporal stability despite control efforts in high transmission settings along the international border between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Julia C. Pringle, Amy Wesolowski, Sophie Berube, Tamaki Kobayashi, Mary E. Gebhardt, Modest Mulenga, Mike Chaponda, Thierry Bobanga, Jonathan J. Juliano, Steven Meshnick, William J. Moss, Giovanna Carpi, Douglas E. Norris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: While the utility of parasite genotyping for malaria elimination has been extensively documented in low to moderate transmission settings, it has been less well-characterized in holoendemic regions. High malaria burden settings have received renewed attention acknowledging their critical role in malaria elimination. Defining the role for parasite genomics in driving these high burden settings towards elimination will enhance future control programme planning. Methods: Amplicon deep sequencing was used to characterize parasite population genetic diversity at polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum loci, Pfama1 and Pfcsp, at two timepoints in June-July 2016 and January-March 2017 in a high transmission region along the international border between Luapula Province, Zambia and Haut-Katanga Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Results: High genetic diversity was observed across both seasons and in both countries. No evidence of population structure was observed between parasite populations on either side of the border, suggesting that this region may be one contiguous transmission zone. Despite a decline in parasite prevalence at the sampling locations in Haut-Katanga Province, no genetic signatures of a population bottleneck were detected, suggesting that larger declines in transmission may be required to reduce parasite genetic diversity. Analysing rare variants may be a suitable alternative approach for detecting epidemiologically important genetic signatures in highly diverse populations; however, the challenge is distinguishing true signals from potential artifacts introduced by small sample sizes. Conclusions: Continuing to explore and document the utility of various parasite genotyping approaches for understanding malaria transmission in holoendemic settings will be valuable to future control and elimination programmes, empowering evidence-based selection of tools and methods to address pertinent questions, thus enabling more efficient resource allocation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number400
JournalMalaria journal
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 4 2019

Fingerprint

Zambia
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Plasmodium falciparum
Parasites
Malaria
Population
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Resource Allocation
Population Genetics
Genomics
Sample Size
Artifacts

Keywords

  • ama1
  • Amplicon deep sequencing
  • Border
  • Control
  • csp
  • Diversity
  • Genetic
  • Malaria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

High Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and temporal stability despite control efforts in high transmission settings along the international border between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. / Pringle, Julia C.; Wesolowski, Amy; Berube, Sophie; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Gebhardt, Mary E.; Mulenga, Modest; Chaponda, Mike; Bobanga, Thierry; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Meshnick, Steven; Moss, William J.; Carpi, Giovanna; Norris, Douglas E.

In: Malaria journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, 400, 04.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pringle, Julia C. ; Wesolowski, Amy ; Berube, Sophie ; Kobayashi, Tamaki ; Gebhardt, Mary E. ; Mulenga, Modest ; Chaponda, Mike ; Bobanga, Thierry ; Juliano, Jonathan J. ; Meshnick, Steven ; Moss, William J. ; Carpi, Giovanna ; Norris, Douglas E. / High Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and temporal stability despite control efforts in high transmission settings along the international border between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In: Malaria journal. 2019 ; Vol. 18, No. 1.
@article{4788e20b8e41497f9f098accf7d6fc9a,
title = "High Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and temporal stability despite control efforts in high transmission settings along the international border between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo",
abstract = "Background: While the utility of parasite genotyping for malaria elimination has been extensively documented in low to moderate transmission settings, it has been less well-characterized in holoendemic regions. High malaria burden settings have received renewed attention acknowledging their critical role in malaria elimination. Defining the role for parasite genomics in driving these high burden settings towards elimination will enhance future control programme planning. Methods: Amplicon deep sequencing was used to characterize parasite population genetic diversity at polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum loci, Pfama1 and Pfcsp, at two timepoints in June-July 2016 and January-March 2017 in a high transmission region along the international border between Luapula Province, Zambia and Haut-Katanga Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Results: High genetic diversity was observed across both seasons and in both countries. No evidence of population structure was observed between parasite populations on either side of the border, suggesting that this region may be one contiguous transmission zone. Despite a decline in parasite prevalence at the sampling locations in Haut-Katanga Province, no genetic signatures of a population bottleneck were detected, suggesting that larger declines in transmission may be required to reduce parasite genetic diversity. Analysing rare variants may be a suitable alternative approach for detecting epidemiologically important genetic signatures in highly diverse populations; however, the challenge is distinguishing true signals from potential artifacts introduced by small sample sizes. Conclusions: Continuing to explore and document the utility of various parasite genotyping approaches for understanding malaria transmission in holoendemic settings will be valuable to future control and elimination programmes, empowering evidence-based selection of tools and methods to address pertinent questions, thus enabling more efficient resource allocation.",
keywords = "ama1, Amplicon deep sequencing, Border, Control, csp, Diversity, Genetic, Malaria",
author = "Pringle, {Julia C.} and Amy Wesolowski and Sophie Berube and Tamaki Kobayashi and Gebhardt, {Mary E.} and Modest Mulenga and Mike Chaponda and Thierry Bobanga and Juliano, {Jonathan J.} and Steven Meshnick and Moss, {William J.} and Giovanna Carpi and Norris, {Douglas E.}",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "4",
doi = "10.1186/s12936-019-3023-4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
journal = "Malaria Journal",
issn = "1475-2875",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - High Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and temporal stability despite control efforts in high transmission settings along the international border between Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

AU - Pringle, Julia C.

AU - Wesolowski, Amy

AU - Berube, Sophie

AU - Kobayashi, Tamaki

AU - Gebhardt, Mary E.

AU - Mulenga, Modest

AU - Chaponda, Mike

AU - Bobanga, Thierry

AU - Juliano, Jonathan J.

AU - Meshnick, Steven

AU - Moss, William J.

AU - Carpi, Giovanna

AU - Norris, Douglas E.

PY - 2019/12/4

Y1 - 2019/12/4

N2 - Background: While the utility of parasite genotyping for malaria elimination has been extensively documented in low to moderate transmission settings, it has been less well-characterized in holoendemic regions. High malaria burden settings have received renewed attention acknowledging their critical role in malaria elimination. Defining the role for parasite genomics in driving these high burden settings towards elimination will enhance future control programme planning. Methods: Amplicon deep sequencing was used to characterize parasite population genetic diversity at polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum loci, Pfama1 and Pfcsp, at two timepoints in June-July 2016 and January-March 2017 in a high transmission region along the international border between Luapula Province, Zambia and Haut-Katanga Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Results: High genetic diversity was observed across both seasons and in both countries. No evidence of population structure was observed between parasite populations on either side of the border, suggesting that this region may be one contiguous transmission zone. Despite a decline in parasite prevalence at the sampling locations in Haut-Katanga Province, no genetic signatures of a population bottleneck were detected, suggesting that larger declines in transmission may be required to reduce parasite genetic diversity. Analysing rare variants may be a suitable alternative approach for detecting epidemiologically important genetic signatures in highly diverse populations; however, the challenge is distinguishing true signals from potential artifacts introduced by small sample sizes. Conclusions: Continuing to explore and document the utility of various parasite genotyping approaches for understanding malaria transmission in holoendemic settings will be valuable to future control and elimination programmes, empowering evidence-based selection of tools and methods to address pertinent questions, thus enabling more efficient resource allocation.

AB - Background: While the utility of parasite genotyping for malaria elimination has been extensively documented in low to moderate transmission settings, it has been less well-characterized in holoendemic regions. High malaria burden settings have received renewed attention acknowledging their critical role in malaria elimination. Defining the role for parasite genomics in driving these high burden settings towards elimination will enhance future control programme planning. Methods: Amplicon deep sequencing was used to characterize parasite population genetic diversity at polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum loci, Pfama1 and Pfcsp, at two timepoints in June-July 2016 and January-March 2017 in a high transmission region along the international border between Luapula Province, Zambia and Haut-Katanga Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Results: High genetic diversity was observed across both seasons and in both countries. No evidence of population structure was observed between parasite populations on either side of the border, suggesting that this region may be one contiguous transmission zone. Despite a decline in parasite prevalence at the sampling locations in Haut-Katanga Province, no genetic signatures of a population bottleneck were detected, suggesting that larger declines in transmission may be required to reduce parasite genetic diversity. Analysing rare variants may be a suitable alternative approach for detecting epidemiologically important genetic signatures in highly diverse populations; however, the challenge is distinguishing true signals from potential artifacts introduced by small sample sizes. Conclusions: Continuing to explore and document the utility of various parasite genotyping approaches for understanding malaria transmission in holoendemic settings will be valuable to future control and elimination programmes, empowering evidence-based selection of tools and methods to address pertinent questions, thus enabling more efficient resource allocation.

KW - ama1

KW - Amplicon deep sequencing

KW - Border

KW - Control

KW - csp

KW - Diversity

KW - Genetic

KW - Malaria

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85076011585&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85076011585&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/s12936-019-3023-4

DO - 10.1186/s12936-019-3023-4

M3 - Article

C2 - 31801548

AN - SCOPUS:85076011585

VL - 18

JO - Malaria Journal

JF - Malaria Journal

SN - 1475-2875

IS - 1

M1 - 400

ER -