High Isoniazid Exposures When Administered with Rifapentine Once Weekly for Latent Tuberculosis in Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Ryan T. Jarrett, Yuri van der Heijden, Matthew S. Shotwell, Violet Chihota, Mark A. Marzinke, Richard E. Chaisson, Kelly Elise Dooley, Gavin J. Churchyard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Isoniazid pharmacokinetics are not yet well-described during once weekly, high-dose administrations with rifapentine (3HP) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Fewer data describe 3HP with dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The only prior report of 3HP with dolutegravir reported elevated isoniazid exposures. We measured the plasma isoniazid levels in 30 adults receiving 3HP and dolutegravir for the treatment of LTBI and HIV. The patients were genotyped to determine NAT2 acetylator status, and a population PK model was estimated by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The results were compared to previously reported data describing 3HP with dolutegravir, 3HP alone, and isoniazid with neither dolutegravir nor rifapentine. The isoniazid concentrations were adequately described by a one compartment model with a transit compartment absorption process. The isoniazid clearance for slow (8.33 L/h) and intermediate (12 L/h) acetylators were similar to previously reported values. Rapid acetylators (N = 4) had clearance similar to those of intermediate acetylators and much slower than typically reported, but the small sample size was limiting. The absorption rate was lower than usual, likely due to the coadministration with food, and it was faster among individuals with a low body weight. Low-body weight participants were also observed to have greater oral bioavailability. The isoniazid exposures were consistent with, or greater than, the previously reported “elevated” concentrations among individuals receiving 3HP and dolutegravir. The concentrations were substantially greater than those presented in previous reports among individuals receiving 3HP or isoniazid without rifapentine or dolutegravir. We discuss the implications of these findings and the possibility of a drug-drug interaction that is mediated by cellular transport. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT03435146 and has South African National Clinical Trial Registration no. DOH-27-1217-5770.).

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • 3HP
  • dolutegravir
  • HIV
  • isoniazid
  • latent tuberculosis infection
  • N-acetyltransferase 2
  • pharmacokinetics
  • rifapentine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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