High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is astonishingly complex, but the de facto standard for its measurement has been remarkably simple: total cholesterol content. It is time to prioritize higher-resolution HDL measurement techniques that capture better the biologically and clinically important characteristics of HDL. Scientific advances have ushered in a new era in which we view HDL in terms of its subfractions, particle structure, metabolism, and functional integration of its proteome and lipidome. HDL subfractions appear to be associated with function. In general, smaller, denser HDL3 is more tightly linked to favorable atheroprotective functions and clinical outcomes. Techniques to measure the cholesterol content or particle concentrations of HDL subfractions are available clinically. In the future, we anticipate subfractionating HDL based on its functional properties.
- High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism