High cost is the primary barrier reported by physicians who prescribe vaccines not included in India's universal immunization program

Geoffrey D. Kahn, Deep Thacker, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Mathuram Santosham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus (RV) vaccine are available in the private market in India, but, except for Hib in eight states, are not included in India's Universal Immunization Program (UIP). Pediatricians were surveyed about administering non-UIP vaccines. Most give these vaccines to some of their patients (73-83%, depending on vaccine), but few give them to all patients (7-18%). High cost was the most frequently cited barrier (93-96%). Only 10-12% of respondents had concerns about the efficacy of PCV or RV vaccine, and concerns about Hib vaccine efficacy or any vaccine safety issues were rare (1-3%). Practice varied by type of healthcare facility, with pediatricians at government hospitals least likely to administer non-UIP vaccines. Support for the inclusion of all three in the UIP was high (83-95%). Including Hib vaccine, PCV and RV vaccine in India's UIP would be supported by pediatricians and help eliminate the current barrier of high cost of these immunizations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberfmu012
Pages (from-to)287-291
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Tropical Pediatrics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Haemophilus vaccines
  • India
  • Pneumococcal vaccines
  • Rotavirus vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medicine(all)

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