BACKGROUND:: Diarrhea is a leading cause of hospitalization and death in children <5 years of age. OBJECTIVES:: To facilitate evaluation of the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction in western Kenya, we estimated baseline rates of rotavirus-associated hospitalization and mortality among children <5 years of age. METHODS:: From January 2010 to December 2011, we collected demographic, clinical and laboratory data for children <5 years of age seeking care at the district hospital and 2 outpatient facilities within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). Children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), defined as ≥3 loose stools and/or ≥1 episode of unexplained vomiting followed by loose stool within a 24-hour period, were asked to provide a stool sample for rotavirus ELISA testing. Rates of rotavirus-associated hospitalization and mortality were estimated using time of residence in the HDSS to calculate person-years of observation. To estimate the rotavirus-associated mortality rate, we applied the percentage positive for rotavirus among AGE hospitalizations to verbal autopsy estimates of diarrhea deaths in the HDSS. RESULTS:: There were 4991 hospitalizations of children <5 years of age; 1134 (23%) were for AGE and stool specimens were obtained from 790 (70%). Rotavirus was detected in 211 (27%) specimens. Among 4951 <5 outpatient sick visits, 608 (12%) were for AGE; 320 (51%) provided specimens and 62 (20%) were positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus AGE accounted for 501 <5 hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years of observation. Rotavirus-associated <5 mortality was 136 deaths per 100,000 person-years of observation. CONCLUSIONS:: Continued surveillance of rotavirus AGE will provide timely data on the population-level impact of rotavirus vaccine following its likely introduction in 2014.
- Health and Demographic Surveillance System
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases