High burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in young children in rural western Kenya, 2010-2011

Sammy Khagayi, Deron C. Burton, Reuben Onkoba, Benjamin Ochieng, Amina Ismail, David Mutonga, Junghae Muthoni, Daniel R. Feikin, Robert F. Breiman, Jason M. Mwenda, Frank Odhiambo, Kayla F. Laserson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND:: Diarrhea is a leading cause of hospitalization and death in children <5 years of age. OBJECTIVES:: To facilitate evaluation of the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction in western Kenya, we estimated baseline rates of rotavirus-associated hospitalization and mortality among children <5 years of age. METHODS:: From January 2010 to December 2011, we collected demographic, clinical and laboratory data for children <5 years of age seeking care at the district hospital and 2 outpatient facilities within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). Children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), defined as ≥3 loose stools and/or ≥1 episode of unexplained vomiting followed by loose stool within a 24-hour period, were asked to provide a stool sample for rotavirus ELISA testing. Rates of rotavirus-associated hospitalization and mortality were estimated using time of residence in the HDSS to calculate person-years of observation. To estimate the rotavirus-associated mortality rate, we applied the percentage positive for rotavirus among AGE hospitalizations to verbal autopsy estimates of diarrhea deaths in the HDSS. RESULTS:: There were 4991 hospitalizations of children <5 years of age; 1134 (23%) were for AGE and stool specimens were obtained from 790 (70%). Rotavirus was detected in 211 (27%) specimens. Among 4951 <5 outpatient sick visits, 608 (12%) were for AGE; 320 (51%) provided specimens and 62 (20%) were positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus AGE accounted for 501 <5 hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years of observation. Rotavirus-associated <5 mortality was 136 deaths per 100,000 person-years of observation. CONCLUSIONS:: Continued surveillance of rotavirus AGE will provide timely data on the population-level impact of rotavirus vaccine following its likely introduction in 2014.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S34-S40
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume33
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Health and Demographic Surveillance System
  • Kenya
  • children
  • rotavirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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    Khagayi, S., Burton, D. C., Onkoba, R., Ochieng, B., Ismail, A., Mutonga, D., Muthoni, J., Feikin, D. R., Breiman, R. F., Mwenda, J. M., Odhiambo, F., & Laserson, K. F. (2014). High burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in young children in rural western Kenya, 2010-2011. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 33(SUPPL. 1), S34-S40. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000049