Hidden Concepts in the History and Philosophy of Origins-of-Life Studies: a Workshop Report

Carlos Mariscal, Ana Barahona, Nathanael Aubert-Kato, Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Stuart Bartlett, María Luz Cárdenas, Kuhan Chandru, Carol Cleland, Benjamin T. Cocanougher, Nathaniel Comfort, Athel Cornish-Bowden, Terrence Deacon, Tom Froese, Donato Giovannelli, John Hernlund, Piet Hut, Jun Kimura, Marie Christine Maurel, Nancy Merino, Alvaro MorenoMayuko Nakagawa, Juli Peretó, Nathaniel Virgo, Olaf Witkowski, H. James Cleaves

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

In this review, we describe some of the central philosophical issues facing origins-of-life research and provide a targeted history of the developments that have led to the multidisciplinary field of origins-of-life studies. We outline these issues and developments to guide researchers and students from all fields. With respect to philosophy, we provide brief summaries of debates with respect to (1) definitions (or theories) of life, what life is and how research should be conducted in the absence of an accepted theory of life, (2) the distinctions between synthetic, historical, and universal projects in origins-of-life studies, issues with strategies for inferring the origins of life, such as (3) the nature of the first living entities (the “bottom up” approach) and (4) how to infer the nature of the last universal common ancestor (the “top down” approach), and (5) the status of origins of life as a science. Each of these debates influences the others. Although there are clusters of researchers that agree on some answers to these issues, each of these debates is still open. With respect to history, we outline several independent paths that have led to some of the approaches now prevalent in origins-of-life studies. These include one path from early views of life through the scientific revolutions brought about by Linnaeus (von Linn.), Wöhler, Miller, and others. In this approach, new theories, tools, and evidence guide new thoughts about the nature of life and its origin. We also describe another family of paths motivated by a” circularity” approach to life, which is guided by such thinkers as Maturana & Varela, Gánti, Rosen, and others. These views echo ideas developed by Kant and Aristotle, though they do so using modern science in ways that produce exciting avenues of investigation. By exploring the history of these ideas, we can see how many of the issues that currently interest us have been guided by the contexts in which the ideas were developed. The disciplinary backgrounds of each of these scholars has influenced the questions they sought to answer, the experiments they envisioned, and the kinds of data they collected. We conclude by encouraging scientists and scholars in the humanities and social sciences to explore ways in which they can interact to provide a deeper understanding of the conceptual assumptions, structure, and history of origins-of-life research. This may be useful to help frame future research agendas and bring awareness to the multifaceted issues facing this challenging scientific question.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOrigins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

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origin of life
histories
history
researchers
social sciences
students
ancestry
social science and humanities
top-down approach
bottom-up approach
common ancestry
student
echoes

Keywords

  • Artificial life
  • Epistemology
  • LUCA
  • Multidisciplinary science
  • Prebiotic evolution
  • Self-organization
  • Theories of life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Mariscal, C., Barahona, A., Aubert-Kato, N., Aydinoglu, A. U., Bartlett, S., Cárdenas, M. L., ... James Cleaves, H. (Accepted/In press). Hidden Concepts in the History and Philosophy of Origins-of-Life Studies: a Workshop Report. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11084-019-09580-x

Hidden Concepts in the History and Philosophy of Origins-of-Life Studies : a Workshop Report. / Mariscal, Carlos; Barahona, Ana; Aubert-Kato, Nathanael; Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Bartlett, Stuart; Cárdenas, María Luz; Chandru, Kuhan; Cleland, Carol; Cocanougher, Benjamin T.; Comfort, Nathaniel; Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Deacon, Terrence; Froese, Tom; Giovannelli, Donato; Hernlund, John; Hut, Piet; Kimura, Jun; Maurel, Marie Christine; Merino, Nancy; Moreno, Alvaro; Nakagawa, Mayuko; Peretó, Juli; Virgo, Nathaniel; Witkowski, Olaf; James Cleaves, H.

In: Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Mariscal, C, Barahona, A, Aubert-Kato, N, Aydinoglu, AU, Bartlett, S, Cárdenas, ML, Chandru, K, Cleland, C, Cocanougher, BT, Comfort, N, Cornish-Bowden, A, Deacon, T, Froese, T, Giovannelli, D, Hernlund, J, Hut, P, Kimura, J, Maurel, MC, Merino, N, Moreno, A, Nakagawa, M, Peretó, J, Virgo, N, Witkowski, O & James Cleaves, H 2019, 'Hidden Concepts in the History and Philosophy of Origins-of-Life Studies: a Workshop Report', Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11084-019-09580-x
Mariscal, Carlos ; Barahona, Ana ; Aubert-Kato, Nathanael ; Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur ; Bartlett, Stuart ; Cárdenas, María Luz ; Chandru, Kuhan ; Cleland, Carol ; Cocanougher, Benjamin T. ; Comfort, Nathaniel ; Cornish-Bowden, Athel ; Deacon, Terrence ; Froese, Tom ; Giovannelli, Donato ; Hernlund, John ; Hut, Piet ; Kimura, Jun ; Maurel, Marie Christine ; Merino, Nancy ; Moreno, Alvaro ; Nakagawa, Mayuko ; Peretó, Juli ; Virgo, Nathaniel ; Witkowski, Olaf ; James Cleaves, H. / Hidden Concepts in the History and Philosophy of Origins-of-Life Studies : a Workshop Report. In: Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 2019.
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AU - Mariscal, Carlos

AU - Barahona, Ana

AU - Aubert-Kato, Nathanael

AU - Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur

AU - Bartlett, Stuart

AU - Cárdenas, María Luz

AU - Chandru, Kuhan

AU - Cleland, Carol

AU - Cocanougher, Benjamin T.

AU - Comfort, Nathaniel

AU - Cornish-Bowden, Athel

AU - Deacon, Terrence

AU - Froese, Tom

AU - Giovannelli, Donato

AU - Hernlund, John

AU - Hut, Piet

AU - Kimura, Jun

AU - Maurel, Marie Christine

AU - Merino, Nancy

AU - Moreno, Alvaro

AU - Nakagawa, Mayuko

AU - Peretó, Juli

AU - Virgo, Nathaniel

AU - Witkowski, Olaf

AU - James Cleaves, H.

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N2 - In this review, we describe some of the central philosophical issues facing origins-of-life research and provide a targeted history of the developments that have led to the multidisciplinary field of origins-of-life studies. We outline these issues and developments to guide researchers and students from all fields. With respect to philosophy, we provide brief summaries of debates with respect to (1) definitions (or theories) of life, what life is and how research should be conducted in the absence of an accepted theory of life, (2) the distinctions between synthetic, historical, and universal projects in origins-of-life studies, issues with strategies for inferring the origins of life, such as (3) the nature of the first living entities (the “bottom up” approach) and (4) how to infer the nature of the last universal common ancestor (the “top down” approach), and (5) the status of origins of life as a science. Each of these debates influences the others. Although there are clusters of researchers that agree on some answers to these issues, each of these debates is still open. With respect to history, we outline several independent paths that have led to some of the approaches now prevalent in origins-of-life studies. These include one path from early views of life through the scientific revolutions brought about by Linnaeus (von Linn.), Wöhler, Miller, and others. In this approach, new theories, tools, and evidence guide new thoughts about the nature of life and its origin. We also describe another family of paths motivated by a” circularity” approach to life, which is guided by such thinkers as Maturana & Varela, Gánti, Rosen, and others. These views echo ideas developed by Kant and Aristotle, though they do so using modern science in ways that produce exciting avenues of investigation. By exploring the history of these ideas, we can see how many of the issues that currently interest us have been guided by the contexts in which the ideas were developed. The disciplinary backgrounds of each of these scholars has influenced the questions they sought to answer, the experiments they envisioned, and the kinds of data they collected. We conclude by encouraging scientists and scholars in the humanities and social sciences to explore ways in which they can interact to provide a deeper understanding of the conceptual assumptions, structure, and history of origins-of-life research. This may be useful to help frame future research agendas and bring awareness to the multifaceted issues facing this challenging scientific question.

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KW - Epistemology

KW - LUCA

KW - Multidisciplinary science

KW - Prebiotic evolution

KW - Self-organization

KW - Theories of life

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