Purpose: This study characterized unobserved subgroups of acculturative experiences among a nationally representative sample of U.S.-residing Latina/os (n = 2541) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Methods: Latent profile analysis was used to characterize the sample by acculturative experiences using nine-factor score indicators regarding discrimination, neighborhood context, family environment, acculturation (language use and preference), and enculturation (ethnic identity). Predictors of profile membership are also examined, including sociodemographics, Latina/o heritage (i.e., ethnic group), generational status, and two acculturative stress domains (legal and interpersonal). Results: Four Latina/o subgroups were identified based on acculturative experiences. Profiles were differentiated by family context, neighborhood context, and discrimination: (1) positive experiences (n = 1,743, 69%), (2) cohesive conflict (n = 424, 17%), (3) marginalized conflict (n = 237, 9%), and (4) marginalized (n = 137, 5%). Generational status, heritage, and marital status were the salient predictors of profile membership. Among the foreign-born sample (n = 1617), legal acculturative stress also predicted profile membership. Conclusions: Latina/os have heterogeneous experiences living in the United States. Discrimination, family context, and neighborhood environment are more related to varying experiences as opposed to traditional measures of acculturation and enculturation. Future research should characterize Latina/o heterogeneity using these experiences rather than strictly by observed demographics, such as heritage or generational status.
- Latent profile analysis
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