Purpose: To determine the association of early changes in posttreatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and venous enhancement (VE) with tumor size change after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) by using an investigational semiautomated software. Materials and Methods: This retrospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Patients underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 1.5 T before TACE, as well as 1 and 6 months after TACE. Volumetric analysis of change in ADC and VE 1 month after TACE compared with pretreatment values was performed in 48 patients with 71 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, using tumor response at 6 months according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and modified RECIST as end points. Results: According to RECIST criteria, 6 months after TACE, 30 HCC lesions showed partial response (PR), 35 showed stable disease (SD), and six showed progressive disease (PD). Increase in ADC and decrease in VE 1 month after TACE were significantly different between PR, SD, and PD. At area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis of the ADC increase, there was an AUC of 0.78 for distinguishing PR from SD and PD and an AUC of 0.89 for distinguishing PR and SD from PD. The AUC for decrease in VE was 0.73 for discrimination of PR from SD and PD and 0.90 for discrimination of PR and SD from PD. Conclusion: Volumetric analysis of increase in ADC and decrease in VE 1 month after TACE can provide an early assessment of response to treatment. Volumetric analysis of multiparametric MR imaging data may have potential as a prognostic biomarker for patients undergoing local-regional treatment of liver cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging