As a result of shared modes of transmission, chronic hepatitis C infection is common in HIV-infected patients, particularly among those who have used injection drugs as well as men who have sex with men (MSMs). In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy, HCV infection has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the last decade, treatment with peginterferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) has been recommended for coinfected patients who are at the greatest risk for liver disease; however, the effectiveness of HCV treatment in this population has been disappointing. Challenges to the use of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors, telaprevir and boceprevir, patients with HIV/HCV coinfection include the potential for interactions between different drugs, addition of drug toxicities, and the need for therapy with PEG-IFN. Despite these challenges, limited data indicate that telaprevir and boceprevir given in combination with PEG-IFN/RBV increase the rate of viral suppression in coinfected patients with manageable toxicity and drug-drug interaction profile. Accordingly, these agents may be recommended for HCV treatment in carefully selected HIV-infected persons.
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