Hepatitis B vaccine administered to children and adolescents at yearly intervals

Neal A. Halsey, Lawrence H. Moulton, J. Crossan O'Donovan, J. Ronald Walcher, Mary Lou Thoms, Harold S. Margolis, David S. Krause

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective. Hepatitis B vaccines are usually administered on a schedule of 0, 1 to 2, and 6 months. Longer intervals between the second and third doses have been studied, but the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccine administered at intervals of > 2 months between the first and second doses have not been studied. Our objective was to compare the antibody response in recipients of Engerix-B hepatitis B vaccine administered at 12-month intervals to the response to vaccine administered at 0-, 1-, and 6-month intervals. Methods. A total of 389 children, 5 through 16 years of age, were randomized to receive Engerix-B (10 mg) at a schedule of either 0-, 1-, and 6-month intervals or 0-, 12-, and 24-month intervals. Blood was drawn before and 1 month after the third dose. Results. Immediately before the third dose of vaccine, 92.3% of children who received vaccine on the 0-, 1-, and 6- month schedule and 88.8% of children who received the 0-, 12-, and 24-month schedule had antibody to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) antigen concentrations ≥ 10 mIU/mL. Of the children in the 0-, 1-, and 6-month schedule, 95% received the third dose according to protocol versus 90% of those in the 0-, 12-, 24-month schedule. The geometric mean anti-HBs concentration just before the third dose for recipients of the 0-, 1-, and 6- month schedule (117.9 mIU/mL) was somewhat lower than that for the children who had received vaccine on the 0-, 12, and 24-month schedule (162.1 mIU/mL). One month after the third dose, > 98% of all children had anti-HBs concentrations ≥ 10 mIU/mL and high geometric mean antibody concentrations were observed in both group: 5687 mIU/mL for children on the 0-, 1-, and 6- month schedule and 3159 mIU/mL for children on the 0-, 12-, and 24-month schedule. Body mass index was correlated inversely with final antibody concentration, but age was not a factor after adjustment for body mass index. Discussion. Engerix-B administered on a 0-, 12-, and 24-month schedule is highly immunogenic. Providers should consider this alternate immunization schedule for children who are at low risk of immediate exposure to hepatitis B infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1243-1247
Number of pages5
JournalPediatrics
Volume103
Issue number6 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 1999

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Antigen
  • Dose
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis B vaccine
  • Immunization
  • Schedule
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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