Hepatic portal venous gas: A report of two cases and a review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and approach to management

Saleh Alqahtani, Carla S. Coffin, Kelly Burak, Fred Chen, John MacGregor, Paul Beck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare condition that occurs when intraluminal gas and/or gas produced by intestinal bacteria enters the portal venous circulation. The most common precipitating factors include ischemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and inflammatory bowel disease. However, HPVG has recently been recognized as a rare complication of endoscopic and radiological procedures. Earlier studies advised immediate surgical intervention, but according to current recommendations, in some settings, HPVG can be managed conservatively. The present study reports two cases of HPVG; one that occurred following colonoscopy in a patient with severe Crohn's disease and one in a patient with graft-versus-host disease. Methods: The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of HPVG are reviewed. Two case reports are presented, followed by the development of a management algorithm. Results: Of the two patients that developed HPVG, one was an outpatient undergoing a colonoscopy for assessment of Crohn's disease activity and the other was an inpatient with graft-versus-host disease. Once the diagnosis of HPVG was made, both patients were managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy and management of their underlying disease. Conclusions: HPVG can occur in the setting of severe gastrointestinal disease states and following endoscopic procedures. It is critical that gastroenterologists are aware of the differential diagnosis pathogenesis diagnostic approach and management of HPVG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-313
Number of pages5
JournalCanadian Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hepatic portal venous gas
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Ischemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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