The dependence of hemolysis produced by pulsed ultrasound on ultrasound frequency, acoustic pressure and pulse length was explored. Human erythrocytes (40% hematocrit; in Albunex ®-supplemented autologous plasma) were exposed (60 s) to 20 or 200 μs pulses of ultrasound at frequencies of 1.02, 2.24 or 3.46 MHz and at peak negative pressures [P-] ranging from 0.0 to ~3.0 MPa in 0.5 MPa increments. The duty factor was 0.01. At each frequency, hemolysis increased with increasing acoustic pressure and depended weakly on pulse duration. At relatively high acoustic pressures, hemolysis depended strongly on ultrasound frequency; at lower pressures, the frequency dependence was weaker. The potential clinical significance of ultrasonic hemolysis is discussed.
- Acoustic cavitation
- Pulsed ultrasound
- Ultrasound bioeffects
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging