Hematophagy and inhibition of platelet aggregation

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Salivary glands from blood-sucking animals (e.g., mosquitoes, bugs, sandflies, fleas, ticks, leeches, hookworms, bats) are a rich source of bioactive molecules that counteract hemostasis in a redundant and synergistic manner. This review discusses recent progress in the identification of salivary inhibitors of platelet aggregation, their molecular characterization, and detailed mechanism of action. Diversity of inhibitors is remarkable, with distinct families of proteins characterized as apyrases that enzymatically degrade ADP or as collagen-binding proteins that prevent its interaction with vWF, or platelet integrin a2b1 or GPVI. Molecules that bind ADP, TXA2, epinephrine, or serotonin with high affinity have also been cloned, expressed, and their structure determined. In addition, a repertoire of antithrombins and an increasingly number of RGD and non-RGD disintegrins targeting platelet aIIbb3 have been reported. Moreover, metalloproteases with fibrinogen (olytic) activity and PAF phosphorylcholine hydrolase are enzymes that have been recruited to the salivary gland to block platelet aggregation. Platelet inhibitory prostaglandins, lysophosphatydilcholine, adenosine, and nitric oxide (NO)-carrying proteins are other notable examples of molecules from hematophagous salivary secretions (herein named sialogenins) with antihemostatic properties. Sialogenins have been employed as tools in biochemistry and cell biology and also display potential therapeutic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationToxins and Hemostasis
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Bench to Bedside
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Pages331-357
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9789048192953
ISBN (Print)9789048192946
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Aegyptin
  • Anophelin
  • D7-short
  • Ixodegrin
  • Ixolaris
  • Lipocalin
  • Metalloproteases
  • Mosquito
  • Nitrophorin
  • Ornatin
  • RPAI-1
  • Sand fly
  • Sialogenin
  • Tick

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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