Health systems supports for community case management of childhood illness: Lessons from an assessment of early implementation in Malawi

Jennifer A. Callaghan-Koru, Kate Gilroy, Adnan A. Hyder, Asha George, Humphreys Nsona, Angella Mtimuni, Bernie Zakeyo, Josiah Mayani, Cristina V. Cardemil, Jennifer Bryce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: National community-based health worker (CBHW) programs often face challenges in ensuring that these remote workers are adequately trained, equipped and supervised. As governments increasingly deploy CBHWs to improve access to primary health care, there is an urgent need to assess how well health systems are supporting CBHWs to provide high quality care. Methods. This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods assessment of selected health systems supports (supervision, drug supply, and job aids) for a national community case management (CCM) program for childhood illness in Malawi during the first year of implementation. We collected data on the types and levels of drug supply and supervision through a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) providing CCM services in six districts. We then conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with program managers and HSAs, respectively, to gain an understanding of the barriers and facilitating factors for delivering health systems supports for CCM. Results: Although the CCM training and job aid were well received by stakeholders, HSAs who participated in the first CCM training sessions often waited up to 4 months before receiving their initial supply of drugs and first supervision visits. One year after training began, 69% of HSAs had all essential CCM drugs in stock and only 38% of HSAs reported a CCM supervision visit in the 3 months prior to the survey. Results of the qualitative assessment indicated that drug supply was constrained by travel distance and stock outs at health facilities, and that the initial supervision system relied on clinicians who were able to spend only limited time away from clinical duties. Proactive district managers trained and enrolled HSAs' routine supervisors to provide CCM supervision. Conclusions: Malawi's CCM program is promising, but health systems supports must be improved to ensure consistent coverage and quality. Mixed-methods implementation research provided the Ministry of Health with actionable feedback that it is using to adapt program policies and improve performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number55
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Community Health Planning
Malawi
Case Management
Health
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Health Services Accessibility
Quality of Health Care
Health Facilities
Focus Groups
Primary Health Care
Cross-Sectional Studies

Keywords

  • Child health
  • Community case management
  • Community health workers
  • Drug supply
  • Job aids
  • Malawi
  • Supervision

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Health systems supports for community case management of childhood illness : Lessons from an assessment of early implementation in Malawi. / Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Gilroy, Kate; Hyder, Adnan A.; George, Asha; Nsona, Humphreys; Mtimuni, Angella; Zakeyo, Bernie; Mayani, Josiah; Cardemil, Cristina V.; Bryce, Jennifer.

In: BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 13, No. 1, 55, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A. ; Gilroy, Kate ; Hyder, Adnan A. ; George, Asha ; Nsona, Humphreys ; Mtimuni, Angella ; Zakeyo, Bernie ; Mayani, Josiah ; Cardemil, Cristina V. ; Bryce, Jennifer. / Health systems supports for community case management of childhood illness : Lessons from an assessment of early implementation in Malawi. In: BMC Health Services Research. 2013 ; Vol. 13, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: National community-based health worker (CBHW) programs often face challenges in ensuring that these remote workers are adequately trained, equipped and supervised. As governments increasingly deploy CBHWs to improve access to primary health care, there is an urgent need to assess how well health systems are supporting CBHWs to provide high quality care. Methods. This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods assessment of selected health systems supports (supervision, drug supply, and job aids) for a national community case management (CCM) program for childhood illness in Malawi during the first year of implementation. We collected data on the types and levels of drug supply and supervision through a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) providing CCM services in six districts. We then conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with program managers and HSAs, respectively, to gain an understanding of the barriers and facilitating factors for delivering health systems supports for CCM. Results: Although the CCM training and job aid were well received by stakeholders, HSAs who participated in the first CCM training sessions often waited up to 4 months before receiving their initial supply of drugs and first supervision visits. One year after training began, 69{\%} of HSAs had all essential CCM drugs in stock and only 38{\%} of HSAs reported a CCM supervision visit in the 3 months prior to the survey. Results of the qualitative assessment indicated that drug supply was constrained by travel distance and stock outs at health facilities, and that the initial supervision system relied on clinicians who were able to spend only limited time away from clinical duties. Proactive district managers trained and enrolled HSAs' routine supervisors to provide CCM supervision. Conclusions: Malawi's CCM program is promising, but health systems supports must be improved to ensure consistent coverage and quality. Mixed-methods implementation research provided the Ministry of Health with actionable feedback that it is using to adapt program policies and improve performance.",
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AU - George, Asha

AU - Nsona, Humphreys

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AU - Zakeyo, Bernie

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