Background We sought to understand whether people living with HIV (PLHIV) ever on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow a pattern where morbidity is compressed into the last years of life or lessened as people age. We aimed to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) among adults living with and without HIV, and examine dependency between causes of comorbidities. Methods The Comparative Outcomes and Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study is a retrospective cohort of adults (≥20 years) including all known PLHIV and a 10% random sample of the general population of British Columbia, and with longitudinal data spanning from April 1, 1996, to Dec 31, 2012. We determined the prevalence of select comorbidities (cardiovascular, respiratory, liver, and renal diseases, and non-AIDS defining cancers because of their high prevalence among PLHIV) by age and sex by use of case-finding algorithms. Deaths were obtained from a vital event registry from British Columbia, Canada. Comorbid-specific HALE was estimated from 20 years of age by HIV status and sex. For each comorbidity, a healthy state was defined as the proportion of life expectancy comorbid-free, and was adjusted on the probability of occurrence of other different comorbidities. The sensitivity of HALE estimates was assessed to the sequencing of select comorbidities for the dependent comorbidity adjustments. Findings Our sample consisted of electronic health records from 9310 HIV-infected and 510 313 uninfected adults over the period April 1, 1996, to Dec 31, 2012. These individuals contributed 49 605 deaths and 5 576 841 person-years over the study period. At exactly age 20 years, HALE was about 31 years (SD 0·16) among men living with HIV and 27 years (0·16) among women living with HIV. In the HIV-negative population, HALE was around 58 years (SD 0·02) for men and 63 years (0·02) for women. These results seem independent of ordering. However, PLHIV, particularly women living with HIV, had much shorter overall life expectancies than did their HIV-negative counterparts in the general population [29·1 years (SD 0·1) vs 65·4 years (0·1)], and thus spent less time in a healthy state. Interpretation Although we noted little differences in the levels of morbidity compression by HIV status, PLHIV—especially women living with HIV—spent less time in a healthy state. Expanded service delivery interventions to address complex care needs of ageing PLHIV are crucial to address shorter life expectancies, and improve their healthy states. Funding Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases