Developmental anomalies result from an erroneous organogenesis, histiogenesis or cytogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS). Etiology is multifactorial including inherited or spontaneous genetic defects, intra-uterine destructive events, ischemia, infections and environmental agents. Developmental anomalies belong to the most frequent congenital malformations (1:100 births). The spectrum of malformations is wide, ranging from tiny focal cortical dysplasias to complex cerebral syndromes. Cerebral anomalies frequently have a significant impact on child development. An early and complete identification of the kind and severity of cerebral malformation will guide therapy, can give information concerning prognosis and should be used to counsel parents for future pregnancies. Diagnosis relies on detailed neuro-imaging.
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