Over the last several years, new therapeutic targets have emerged in immunotherapy, particularly the immune checkpoint pathways. Blocking inhibitory pathways via monoclonal antibodies, such as the anti- cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (ipilimumab), anti-programmed cell death-1 antibody (BMS-936558), and anti-programmed cell death-1 ligand antibody (BMS-936559), has the ability to break down the shield that tumors co-opt for their defense. Vaccines are able to help the immune system develop immune memory that can have long-lasting, tumor-specific effects. Newer vaccines, particularly the tumor cell vaccine, belagenpumatucel-L, and the antigen-specific vaccines, melanoma-associated antigen-A3, liposomal BLP-25, TG4010, and recombinant human epidermal growth factor, are being evaluated in some of the largest trials ever attempted in lung cancer therapy. These therapies alone or in combination may hold the key to making immunotherapy a reality in the treatment of lung cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research