Harmonization of neuroticism and extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium

An application of item response theory

Stéphanie M. Van Den Berg, Marleen H M De Moor, Matt McGue, Erik Pettersson, Antonio Terracciano, Karin J H Verweij, Najaf Amin, Jaime Derringer, Tõnu Esko, Gerard Van Grootheest, Narelle K. Hansell, Jennifer Huffman, Bettina Konte, Jari Lahti, Michelle Luciano, Lindsay K. Matteson, Alexander Viktorin, Jasper Wouda, Arpana Agrawal, Jüri Allik & 68 others Laura Bierut, Ulla Broms, Harry Campbell, George Davey Smith, Johan G. Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Barbera Franke, Jean Paul Fox, Eco J C De Geus, Ina Giegling, Alan J. Gow, Richard Grucza, Annette M. Hartmann, Andrew C. Heath, Kauko Heikkilä, William G. Iacono, Joost Janzing, Markus Jokela, Lambertus Kiemeney, Terho Lehtimäki, Pamela A F Madden, Patrik K E Magnusson, Kate Northstone, Teresa Nutile, Klaasjan G. Ouwens, Aarno Palotie, Alison Pattie, Anu Katriina Pesonen, Ozren Polasek, Lea Pulkkinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Olli T. Raitakari, Anu Realo, Richard J. Rose, Daniela Ruggiero, Ilkka Seppälä, Wendy S. Slutske, David C. Smyth, Rossella Sorice, John M. Starr, Angelina R. Sutin, Toshiko Tanaka, Josine Verhagen, Sita Vermeulen, Eero Vuoksimaa, Elisabeth Widen, Gonneke Willemsen, Margaret J. Wright, Lina Zgaga, Dan Rujescu, Andres Metspalu, James F. Wilson, Marina Ciullo, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Ian J. Deary, Katri Räikkönen, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Paul Costa, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Brenda W J H Penninx, Robert F. Krueger, David M. Evans, Jaakko Kaprio, Nancy L. Pedersen, Nicholas G. Martin, Dorret I. Boomsma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-313
Number of pages19
JournalBehavior Genetics
Volume44
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Personality
phenotype
Phenotype
Equipment and Supplies
Personality Inventory
Meta-Analysis
meta-analysis
heritability
cohort studies
Genome-Wide Association Study
genome
Sample Size
Cohort Studies
Language
Neuroticism
Extraversion (Psychology)
gender
sampling
methodology

Keywords

  • Consortium
  • Genome-wide association studies
  • Item-Response Theory
  • Measurement
  • Meta-analysis
  • Personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Harmonization of neuroticism and extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium : An application of item response theory. / Van Den Berg, Stéphanie M.; De Moor, Marleen H M; McGue, Matt; Pettersson, Erik; Terracciano, Antonio; Verweij, Karin J H; Amin, Najaf; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Hansell, Narelle K.; Huffman, Jennifer; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Luciano, Michelle; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Viktorin, Alexander; Wouda, Jasper; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Bierut, Laura; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Smith, George Davey; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbera; Fox, Jean Paul; De Geus, Eco J C; Giegling, Ina; Gow, Alan J.; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Iacono, William G.; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Madden, Pamela A F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Northstone, Kate; Nutile, Teresa; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pattie, Alison; Pesonen, Anu Katriina; Polasek, Ozren; Pulkkinen, Lea; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Seppälä, Ilkka; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smyth, David C.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Verhagen, Josine; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Rujescu, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Wilson, James F.; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Costa, Paul; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Krueger, Robert F.; Evans, David M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

In: Behavior Genetics, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2014, p. 295-313.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Van Den Berg, SM, De Moor, MHM, McGue, M, Pettersson, E, Terracciano, A, Verweij, KJH, Amin, N, Derringer, J, Esko, T, Van Grootheest, G, Hansell, NK, Huffman, J, Konte, B, Lahti, J, Luciano, M, Matteson, LK, Viktorin, A, Wouda, J, Agrawal, A, Allik, J, Bierut, L, Broms, U, Campbell, H, Smith, GD, Eriksson, JG, Ferrucci, L, Franke, B, Fox, JP, De Geus, EJC, Giegling, I, Gow, AJ, Grucza, R, Hartmann, AM, Heath, AC, Heikkilä, K, Iacono, WG, Janzing, J, Jokela, M, Kiemeney, L, Lehtimäki, T, Madden, PAF, Magnusson, PKE, Northstone, K, Nutile, T, Ouwens, KG, Palotie, A, Pattie, A, Pesonen, AK, Polasek, O, Pulkkinen, L, Pulkki-Råback, L, Raitakari, OT, Realo, A, Rose, RJ, Ruggiero, D, Seppälä, I, Slutske, WS, Smyth, DC, Sorice, R, Starr, JM, Sutin, AR, Tanaka, T, Verhagen, J, Vermeulen, S, Vuoksimaa, E, Widen, E, Willemsen, G, Wright, MJ, Zgaga, L, Rujescu, D, Metspalu, A, Wilson, JF, Ciullo, M, Hayward, C, Rudan, I, Deary, IJ, Räikkönen, K, Arias Vasquez, A, Costa, P, Keltikangas-Järvinen, L, Van Duijn, CM, Penninx, BWJH, Krueger, RF, Evans, DM, Kaprio, J, Pedersen, NL, Martin, NG & Boomsma, DI 2014, 'Harmonization of neuroticism and extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: An application of item response theory', Behavior Genetics, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 295-313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-014-9654-x
Van Den Berg, Stéphanie M. ; De Moor, Marleen H M ; McGue, Matt ; Pettersson, Erik ; Terracciano, Antonio ; Verweij, Karin J H ; Amin, Najaf ; Derringer, Jaime ; Esko, Tõnu ; Van Grootheest, Gerard ; Hansell, Narelle K. ; Huffman, Jennifer ; Konte, Bettina ; Lahti, Jari ; Luciano, Michelle ; Matteson, Lindsay K. ; Viktorin, Alexander ; Wouda, Jasper ; Agrawal, Arpana ; Allik, Jüri ; Bierut, Laura ; Broms, Ulla ; Campbell, Harry ; Smith, George Davey ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Franke, Barbera ; Fox, Jean Paul ; De Geus, Eco J C ; Giegling, Ina ; Gow, Alan J. ; Grucza, Richard ; Hartmann, Annette M. ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Heikkilä, Kauko ; Iacono, William G. ; Janzing, Joost ; Jokela, Markus ; Kiemeney, Lambertus ; Lehtimäki, Terho ; Madden, Pamela A F ; Magnusson, Patrik K E ; Northstone, Kate ; Nutile, Teresa ; Ouwens, Klaasjan G. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Pattie, Alison ; Pesonen, Anu Katriina ; Polasek, Ozren ; Pulkkinen, Lea ; Pulkki-Råback, Laura ; Raitakari, Olli T. ; Realo, Anu ; Rose, Richard J. ; Ruggiero, Daniela ; Seppälä, Ilkka ; Slutske, Wendy S. ; Smyth, David C. ; Sorice, Rossella ; Starr, John M. ; Sutin, Angelina R. ; Tanaka, Toshiko ; Verhagen, Josine ; Vermeulen, Sita ; Vuoksimaa, Eero ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Wright, Margaret J. ; Zgaga, Lina ; Rujescu, Dan ; Metspalu, Andres ; Wilson, James F. ; Ciullo, Marina ; Hayward, Caroline ; Rudan, Igor ; Deary, Ian J. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro ; Costa, Paul ; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa ; Van Duijn, Cornelia M. ; Penninx, Brenda W J H ; Krueger, Robert F. ; Evans, David M. ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Pedersen, Nancy L. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. / Harmonization of neuroticism and extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium : An application of item response theory. In: Behavior Genetics. 2014 ; Vol. 44, No. 4. pp. 295-313.
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Harmonization of neuroticism and extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium

T2 - An application of item response theory

AU - Van Den Berg, Stéphanie M.

AU - De Moor, Marleen H M

AU - McGue, Matt

AU - Pettersson, Erik

AU - Terracciano, Antonio

AU - Verweij, Karin J H

AU - Amin, Najaf

AU - Derringer, Jaime

AU - Esko, Tõnu

AU - Van Grootheest, Gerard

AU - Hansell, Narelle K.

AU - Huffman, Jennifer

AU - Konte, Bettina

AU - Lahti, Jari

AU - Luciano, Michelle

AU - Matteson, Lindsay K.

AU - Viktorin, Alexander

AU - Wouda, Jasper

AU - Agrawal, Arpana

AU - Allik, Jüri

AU - Bierut, Laura

AU - Broms, Ulla

AU - Campbell, Harry

AU - Smith, George Davey

AU - Eriksson, Johan G.

AU - Ferrucci, Luigi

AU - Franke, Barbera

AU - Fox, Jean Paul

AU - De Geus, Eco J C

AU - Giegling, Ina

AU - Gow, Alan J.

AU - Grucza, Richard

AU - Hartmann, Annette M.

AU - Heath, Andrew C.

AU - Heikkilä, Kauko

AU - Iacono, William G.

AU - Janzing, Joost

AU - Jokela, Markus

AU - Kiemeney, Lambertus

AU - Lehtimäki, Terho

AU - Madden, Pamela A F

AU - Magnusson, Patrik K E

AU - Northstone, Kate

AU - Nutile, Teresa

AU - Ouwens, Klaasjan G.

AU - Palotie, Aarno

AU - Pattie, Alison

AU - Pesonen, Anu Katriina

AU - Polasek, Ozren

AU - Pulkkinen, Lea

AU - Pulkki-Råback, Laura

AU - Raitakari, Olli T.

AU - Realo, Anu

AU - Rose, Richard J.

AU - Ruggiero, Daniela

AU - Seppälä, Ilkka

AU - Slutske, Wendy S.

AU - Smyth, David C.

AU - Sorice, Rossella

AU - Starr, John M.

AU - Sutin, Angelina R.

AU - Tanaka, Toshiko

AU - Verhagen, Josine

AU - Vermeulen, Sita

AU - Vuoksimaa, Eero

AU - Widen, Elisabeth

AU - Willemsen, Gonneke

AU - Wright, Margaret J.

AU - Zgaga, Lina

AU - Rujescu, Dan

AU - Metspalu, Andres

AU - Wilson, James F.

AU - Ciullo, Marina

AU - Hayward, Caroline

AU - Rudan, Igor

AU - Deary, Ian J.

AU - Räikkönen, Katri

AU - Arias Vasquez, Alejandro

AU - Costa, Paul

AU - Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

AU - Van Duijn, Cornelia M.

AU - Penninx, Brenda W J H

AU - Krueger, Robert F.

AU - Evans, David M.

AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

AU - Pedersen, Nancy L.

AU - Martin, Nicholas G.

AU - Boomsma, Dorret I.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.

AB - Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.

KW - Consortium

KW - Genome-wide association studies

KW - Item-Response Theory

KW - Measurement

KW - Meta-analysis

KW - Personality

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