Haplotype analysis of two X-chromosome STR clusters in the Pakistani population

Muhammad Akram Tariq, Muhammad Farooq Sabir, S. Amer Riazuddin, Sheikh Riazuddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Haplotype analysis of closely associated markers has proven to be a powerful tool in kinship analysis especially when X-chromosome short tandem repeats fail to resolve uncertainty in relationship analysis. Microsatellites located on the X chromosome show stronger linkage disequilibrium compared with autosomal microsatellites; hence, it is necessary to estimate the haplotype frequencies directly from population studies as linkage disequilibrium is population-specific. Here, we describe five markers residing in two clusters; cluster I harboring three STR markers DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 and cluster II harboring two STR markers DXS7424-DXS101. A total of 302 male DNA samples of Pakistani descent were analyzed. Theoretically, 847 and 160 different combinations of haplotypes are possible in clusters I and II, but genotyping identified only 129 and 75 haplotypes, respectively. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was detected, except for the pair (DXS6801-DXS6789), consistent with results obtained with the cluster I in a German population. Our results demonstrate that 83% haplotypes of cluster I and 65% haplotypes of cluster II show 1% frequency in the Pakistani population. This strongly suggests that haplotypes of these two clusters provide a powerful tool for kinship testing and relationship investigations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-87
Number of pages3
JournalInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Haplotyping
  • Pakistani population
  • Relationship testing
  • X chromosome
  • X-STR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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