Curative therapy for individuals with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) who lack an HLA-identical sibling donor has been frustratingly elusive. In with the goal of improving engraftment while minimizing transplantation-related morbidity, a multi-institutional learning collaborative was developed in the context of a Phase II clinical trial of nonmyeloablative, related HLA-haploidentical (haplo) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. All eligible participants had hemoglobin SS, and 89% (16 of 18) had an identifiable donor. The median patient age was 20.9 years (IQR, 12.1 to 26.0 years), and the most common indication for transplantation was overt stroke (in 69%; 11 of 16). In the first 3 patients, the conditioning regimen consisted of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and low-dose total body irradiation. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis included post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus. Primary graft rejection occurred in 2 of the 3 patients (67%), which triggered the study-stopping rule. To reduce graft rejection risk, thiotepa was added to the conditioning regimen, and then 15 patients (including 2 with previous graft rejection) underwent haplo-BMT with this thiotepa-augmented conditioning regimen. At a median follow-up of 13.3 months (interquartile range [IQR], 3.8 to 23.1 months), 93% (14 of 15) had >95% stable donor engraftment at 6 months, with 100% overall survival. The median time to neutrophil engraftment (>500) was 22 days (IQR, 19 to 27 days), and that for platelet engraftment (>50 x 109/L) was 28 days (IQR, 27 days to not reached). Two patients had grade III-IV acute GVHD, 1 patient had mild chronic GVHD, and 86% of patients (6 of 7) were off immunosuppression therapy by 1-year post-transplantation. Our data suggest that haplo-BMT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide and thiotepa improves donor engraftment without significantly increasing morbidity or mortality and could dramatically expand curative options for individuals with SCD.
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide
- Sickle cell disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas