Handheld ophthalmoscopes for hazards analysis: An evaluation

Robert H. James, Robert G. Bostrom, Donald Remark, David H. Sliney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The spectral irradiance was measured from twenty handheld ophthalmoscopes. The optical radiation emitted from each ophthalmoscope was compared to the threshold limit values (TLVs) for acute effects published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. All ophthalmoscopes tested were found to emit unnecessary ultraviolet and infrared radiation in addition to visible light. The levels of optical radiation emitted from most of the ophthalmoscopes were below the applicable TLVs. Nevertheless, suitable blocking filters can reduce the emission of ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Use of the ophthalmoscopes at the lowest possible power would further minimize patient exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5072-5076
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 15 1988
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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