Hair dye use and other risk factors for leukemia and pre-leukemia: A case-control study

A. Mele, M. Szklo, G. Visani, M. A. Stazi, G. Castelli, P. Pasquini, F. Mandelli

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78 Scopus citations


A case-control study was carried out to examine the relation of three subtypes of leukemia cells and refractory anemia with excess of blasts to selected behavioral and environmental factors. Cases aged 15 years or older were recruited in three hospitals located in Rome, Bologna, and Pavia, respectively. Outpatients who were either normal or had nonneoplastic hematologic disorders and were seen in the same hospitals as the cases were enrolled as controls. Two hundred fifty-two patients with acute myeloid leukemia, 100 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 111 with refractory anemia with excess of blasts, 156 with chronic myeloid leukemia, and 1,161 controls were included in the study. Refractory anemia with excess of blasts and chronic myeloid leukemia were included because they are regarded as forms of pre-leukemia. Odds ratio estimates were generally imprecise, but associations were suggested between specific case subtypes and exposure to dark hair dye, selected occupations (shoemaker, painter, electrician, child care), residence in houses built with tuff, and smoking. Although the exploratory nature of the study and its limited statistical power preclude firm conclusions, its results are consistent with those of previous studies, and are in general biologically plausible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-619
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 15 1994


  • Hair dyes
  • Leukemia
  • Occupational exposure
  • Radiation
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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