GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment

Cornelius A. Rietveld, Sarah E. Medland, Jaime Derringer, Jian Yang, Tõnu Esko, Nicolas W. Martin, Harm Jan Westra, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Abdel Abdellaoui, Arpana Agrawal, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, John Barnard, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Kelly Benke, Lawrence F. Bielak, Jeffrey A. Boatman, Patricia A. Boyle, Gail Davies & 183 others Christiaan De Leeuw, Niina Eklund, Daniel S. Evans, Rudolf Ferhmann, Krista Fischer, Christian Gieger, Håkon K. Gjessing, Sara Hägg, Jennifer R. Harris, Caroline Hayward, Christina Holzapfel, Carla A. Ibrahim-Verbaas, Erik Ingelsson, Bo Jacobsson, Peter K. Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika Kaakinen, Stavroula Kanoni, Juha Karjalainen, Ivana Kolcic, Kati Kristiansson, Zoltán Kutalik, Jari Lahti, Sang H. Lee, Peng Lin, Penelope A. Lind, Yongmei Liu, Kurt Lohman, Marisa Loitfelder, George McMahon, Pedro Marques Vidal, Osorio Meirelles, Lili Milani, Ronny Myhre, Marja Liisa Nuotio, Christopher J. Oldmeadow, Katja E. Petrovic, Wouter J. Peyrot, Ozren Polašek, Lydia Quaye, Eva Reinmaa, John P. Rice, Thais S. Rizzi, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Albert V. Smith, Jennifer A. Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Antonio Terracciano, Matthijs J H M Van Der Loos, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Jürgen Wellmann, Lei Yu, Wei Zhao, Jüri Allik, John R. Attia, Stefania Bandinelli, François Bastardot, Jonathan Beauchamp, David A. Bennett, Klaus Berger, Laura J. Bierut, Dorret I. Boomsma, Ute Bültmann, Harry Campbell, Christopher F. Chabris, Lynn Cherkas, Mina K. Chung, Francesco Cucca, Mariza De Andrade, Philip L. De Jager, Jan Emmanuel De Neve, Ian J. Deary, George V. Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Maria Dimitriou, Guoný Eiríksdóttir, Martin F. Elderson, Johan G. Eriksson, David M. Evans, Jessica D. Faul, Luigi Ferrucci, Melissa E. Garcia, Henrik Grönberg, Vilmundur Guonason, Per Hall, Juliette M. Harris, Tamara B. Harris, Nicholas D. Hastie, Andrew C. Heath, Dena G. Hernandez, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Adriaan Hofman, Rolf Holle, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Jouke Jan Hottenga, William G. Iacono, Thomas Illig, Marjo Riitta Järvelin, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Matthew Kowgier, Antti Latvala, Lenore J. Launer, Debbie A. Lawlor, Terho Lehtimäki, Jingmei Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C. Liewald, Pamela A. Madden, Patrik K E Magnusson, Tomi E. Mäkinen, Marco Masala, Matt McGue, Andres Metspalu, Andreas Mielck, Michael B. Miller, Grant W. Montgomery, Sutapa Mukherjee, Dale R. Nyholt, Ben A. Oostra, Lyle J. Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Brenda W J H Penninx, Markus Perola, Patricia A. Peyser, Martin Preisig, Katri Räikkönen, Olli T. Raitakari, Anu Realo, Susan M. Ring, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Antti Pekka Sarin, David Schlessinger, Rodney J. Scott, Harold Snieder, Beate St Pourcain, John M. Starr, Jae Hoon Sul, Ida Surakka, Rauli Svento, Alexander Teumer, Henning Tiemeier, Frank J A Van Rooij, David R. Van Wagoner, Erkki Vartiainen, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Judith M. Vonk, Gérard Waeber, David R. Weir, H. Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widen, Gonneke Willemsen, James F. Wilson, Alan F. Wright, Dalton Conley, George Davey-Smith, Lude Franke, Patrick J F Groenen, Albert Hofman, Magnus Johannesson, Sharon L R Kardia, Robert F. Krueger, David Laibson, Nicholas G. Martin, Michelle N. Meyer, Danielle Posthuma, A. Roy Thurik, Nicholas J. Timpson, André G. Uitterlinden, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Peter M. Visscher, Daniel J. Benjamin, David Cesarini, Philipp D. Koellinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R2≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1467-1471
Number of pages5
JournalScience
Volume340
Issue number6139
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Genome-Wide Association Study
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Social Sciences
Caudate Nucleus
Computational Biology
Cognition
Central Nervous System
Alleles
Genome
Phenotype
Health
Genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Rietveld, C. A., Medland, S. E., Derringer, J., Yang, J., Esko, T., Martin, N. W., ... Koellinger, P. D. (2013). GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. Science, 340(6139), 1467-1471. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235488

GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. / Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; De Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; De Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiríksdóttir, Guoný; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Guonason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; St Pourcain, Beate; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Van Rooij, Frank J A; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L R; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.

In: Science, Vol. 340, No. 6139, 2013, p. 1467-1471.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rietveld, CA, Medland, SE, Derringer, J, Yang, J, Esko, T, Martin, NW, Westra, HJ, Shakhbazov, K, Abdellaoui, A, Agrawal, A, Albrecht, E, Alizadeh, BZ, Amin, N, Barnard, J, Baumeister, SE, Benke, K, Bielak, LF, Boatman, JA, Boyle, PA, Davies, G, De Leeuw, C, Eklund, N, Evans, DS, Ferhmann, R, Fischer, K, Gieger, C, Gjessing, HK, Hägg, S, Harris, JR, Hayward, C, Holzapfel, C, Ibrahim-Verbaas, CA, Ingelsson, E, Jacobsson, B, Joshi, PK, Jugessur, A, Kaakinen, M, Kanoni, S, Karjalainen, J, Kolcic, I, Kristiansson, K, Kutalik, Z, Lahti, J, Lee, SH, Lin, P, Lind, PA, Liu, Y, Lohman, K, Loitfelder, M, McMahon, G, Vidal, PM, Meirelles, O, Milani, L, Myhre, R, Nuotio, ML, Oldmeadow, CJ, Petrovic, KE, Peyrot, WJ, Polašek, O, Quaye, L, Reinmaa, E, Rice, JP, Rizzi, TS, Schmidt, H, Schmidt, R, Smith, AV, Smith, JA, Tanaka, T, Terracciano, A, Van Der Loos, MJHM, Vitart, V, Völzke, H, Wellmann, J, Yu, L, Zhao, W, Allik, J, Attia, JR, Bandinelli, S, Bastardot, F, Beauchamp, J, Bennett, DA, Berger, K, Bierut, LJ, Boomsma, DI, Bültmann, U, Campbell, H, Chabris, CF, Cherkas, L, Chung, MK, Cucca, F, De Andrade, M, De Jager, PL, De Neve, JE, Deary, IJ, Dedoussis, GV, Deloukas, P, Dimitriou, M, Eiríksdóttir, G, Elderson, MF, Eriksson, JG, Evans, DM, Faul, JD, Ferrucci, L, Garcia, ME, Grönberg, H, Guonason, V, Hall, P, Harris, JM, Harris, TB, Hastie, ND, Heath, AC, Hernandez, DG, Hoffmann, W, Hofman, A, Holle, R, Holliday, EG, Hottenga, JJ, Iacono, WG, Illig, T, Järvelin, MR, Kähönen, M, Kaprio, J, Kirkpatrick, RM, Kowgier, M, Latvala, A, Launer, LJ, Lawlor, DA, Lehtimäki, T, Li, J, Lichtenstein, P, Lichtner, P, Liewald, DC, Madden, PA, Magnusson, PKE, Mäkinen, TE, Masala, M, McGue, M, Metspalu, A, Mielck, A, Miller, MB, Montgomery, GW, Mukherjee, S, Nyholt, DR, Oostra, BA, Palmer, LJ, Palotie, A, Penninx, BWJH, Perola, M, Peyser, PA, Preisig, M, Räikkönen, K, Raitakari, OT, Realo, A, Ring, SM, Ripatti, S, Rivadeneira, F, Rudan, I, Rustichini, A, Salomaa, V, Sarin, AP, Schlessinger, D, Scott, RJ, Snieder, H, St Pourcain, B, Starr, JM, Sul, JH, Surakka, I, Svento, R, Teumer, A, Tiemeier, H, Van Rooij, FJA, Van Wagoner, DR, Vartiainen, E, Viikari, J, Vollenweider, P, Vonk, JM, Waeber, G, Weir, DR, Wichmann, HE, Widen, E, Willemsen, G, Wilson, JF, Wright, AF, Conley, D, Davey-Smith, G, Franke, L, Groenen, PJF, Hofman, A, Johannesson, M, Kardia, SLR, Krueger, RF, Laibson, D, Martin, NG, Meyer, MN, Posthuma, D, Thurik, AR, Timpson, NJ, Uitterlinden, AG, Van Duijn, CM, Visscher, PM, Benjamin, DJ, Cesarini, D & Koellinger, PD 2013, 'GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment', Science, vol. 340, no. 6139, pp. 1467-1471. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235488
Rietveld CA, Medland SE, Derringer J, Yang J, Esko T, Martin NW et al. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. Science. 2013;340(6139):1467-1471. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235488
Rietveld, Cornelius A. ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Derringer, Jaime ; Yang, Jian ; Esko, Tõnu ; Martin, Nicolas W. ; Westra, Harm Jan ; Shakhbazov, Konstantin ; Abdellaoui, Abdel ; Agrawal, Arpana ; Albrecht, Eva ; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z. ; Amin, Najaf ; Barnard, John ; Baumeister, Sebastian E. ; Benke, Kelly ; Bielak, Lawrence F. ; Boatman, Jeffrey A. ; Boyle, Patricia A. ; Davies, Gail ; De Leeuw, Christiaan ; Eklund, Niina ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Ferhmann, Rudolf ; Fischer, Krista ; Gieger, Christian ; Gjessing, Håkon K. ; Hägg, Sara ; Harris, Jennifer R. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Holzapfel, Christina ; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A. ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Jacobsson, Bo ; Joshi, Peter K. ; Jugessur, Astanand ; Kaakinen, Marika ; Kanoni, Stavroula ; Karjalainen, Juha ; Kolcic, Ivana ; Kristiansson, Kati ; Kutalik, Zoltán ; Lahti, Jari ; Lee, Sang H. ; Lin, Peng ; Lind, Penelope A. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Lohman, Kurt ; Loitfelder, Marisa ; McMahon, George ; Vidal, Pedro Marques ; Meirelles, Osorio ; Milani, Lili ; Myhre, Ronny ; Nuotio, Marja Liisa ; Oldmeadow, Christopher J. ; Petrovic, Katja E. ; Peyrot, Wouter J. ; Polašek, Ozren ; Quaye, Lydia ; Reinmaa, Eva ; Rice, John P. ; Rizzi, Thais S. ; Schmidt, Helena ; Schmidt, Reinhold ; Smith, Albert V. ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Tanaka, Toshiko ; Terracciano, Antonio ; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J H M ; Vitart, Veronique ; Völzke, Henry ; Wellmann, Jürgen ; Yu, Lei ; Zhao, Wei ; Allik, Jüri ; Attia, John R. ; Bandinelli, Stefania ; Bastardot, François ; Beauchamp, Jonathan ; Bennett, David A. ; Berger, Klaus ; Bierut, Laura J. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Bültmann, Ute ; Campbell, Harry ; Chabris, Christopher F. ; Cherkas, Lynn ; Chung, Mina K. ; Cucca, Francesco ; De Andrade, Mariza ; De Jager, Philip L. ; De Neve, Jan Emmanuel ; Deary, Ian J. ; Dedoussis, George V. ; Deloukas, Panos ; Dimitriou, Maria ; Eiríksdóttir, Guoný ; Elderson, Martin F. ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Evans, David M. ; Faul, Jessica D. ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Garcia, Melissa E. ; Grönberg, Henrik ; Guonason, Vilmundur ; Hall, Per ; Harris, Juliette M. ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Hastie, Nicholas D. ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Hernandez, Dena G. ; Hoffmann, Wolfgang ; Hofman, Adriaan ; Holle, Rolf ; Holliday, Elizabeth G. ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; Iacono, William G. ; Illig, Thomas ; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Kähönen, Mika ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Kirkpatrick, Robert M. ; Kowgier, Matthew ; Latvala, Antti ; Launer, Lenore J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Lehtimäki, Terho ; Li, Jingmei ; Lichtenstein, Paul ; Lichtner, Peter ; Liewald, David C. ; Madden, Pamela A. ; Magnusson, Patrik K E ; Mäkinen, Tomi E. ; Masala, Marco ; McGue, Matt ; Metspalu, Andres ; Mielck, Andreas ; Miller, Michael B. ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Mukherjee, Sutapa ; Nyholt, Dale R. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Palmer, Lyle J. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Penninx, Brenda W J H ; Perola, Markus ; Peyser, Patricia A. ; Preisig, Martin ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Raitakari, Olli T. ; Realo, Anu ; Ring, Susan M. ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Rudan, Igor ; Rustichini, Aldo ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Sarin, Antti Pekka ; Schlessinger, David ; Scott, Rodney J. ; Snieder, Harold ; St Pourcain, Beate ; Starr, John M. ; Sul, Jae Hoon ; Surakka, Ida ; Svento, Rauli ; Teumer, Alexander ; Tiemeier, Henning ; Van Rooij, Frank J A ; Van Wagoner, David R. ; Vartiainen, Erkki ; Viikari, Jorma ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Waeber, Gérard ; Weir, David R. ; Wichmann, H. Erich ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Alan F. ; Conley, Dalton ; Davey-Smith, George ; Franke, Lude ; Groenen, Patrick J F ; Hofman, Albert ; Johannesson, Magnus ; Kardia, Sharon L R ; Krueger, Robert F. ; Laibson, David ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; Meyer, Michelle N. ; Posthuma, Danielle ; Thurik, A. Roy ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Van Duijn, Cornelia M. ; Visscher, Peter M. ; Benjamin, Daniel J. ; Cesarini, David ; Koellinger, Philipp D. / GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. In: Science. 2013 ; Vol. 340, No. 6139. pp. 1467-1471.
@article{2885d245f09242658c30c1dc65f1c504,
title = "GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment",
abstract = "A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R2≈ 0.02{\%}), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2{\%} of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.",
author = "Rietveld, {Cornelius A.} and Medland, {Sarah E.} and Jaime Derringer and Jian Yang and T{\~o}nu Esko and Martin, {Nicolas W.} and Westra, {Harm Jan} and Konstantin Shakhbazov and Abdel Abdellaoui and Arpana Agrawal and Eva Albrecht and Alizadeh, {Behrooz Z.} and Najaf Amin and John Barnard and Baumeister, {Sebastian E.} and Kelly Benke and Bielak, {Lawrence F.} and Boatman, {Jeffrey A.} and Boyle, {Patricia A.} and Gail Davies and {De Leeuw}, Christiaan and Niina Eklund and Evans, {Daniel S.} and Rudolf Ferhmann and Krista Fischer and Christian Gieger and Gjessing, {H{\aa}kon K.} and Sara H{\"a}gg and Harris, {Jennifer R.} and Caroline Hayward and Christina Holzapfel and Ibrahim-Verbaas, {Carla A.} and Erik Ingelsson and Bo Jacobsson and Joshi, {Peter K.} and Astanand Jugessur and Marika Kaakinen and Stavroula Kanoni and Juha Karjalainen and Ivana Kolcic and Kati Kristiansson and Zolt{\'a}n Kutalik and Jari Lahti and Lee, {Sang H.} and Peng Lin and Lind, {Penelope A.} and Yongmei Liu and Kurt Lohman and Marisa Loitfelder and George McMahon and Vidal, {Pedro Marques} and Osorio Meirelles and Lili Milani and Ronny Myhre and Nuotio, {Marja Liisa} and Oldmeadow, {Christopher J.} and Petrovic, {Katja E.} and Peyrot, {Wouter J.} and Ozren Polašek and Lydia Quaye and Eva Reinmaa and Rice, {John P.} and Rizzi, {Thais S.} and Helena Schmidt and Reinhold Schmidt and Smith, {Albert V.} and Smith, {Jennifer A.} and Toshiko Tanaka and Antonio Terracciano and {Van Der Loos}, {Matthijs J H M} and Veronique Vitart and Henry V{\"o}lzke and J{\"u}rgen Wellmann and Lei Yu and Wei Zhao and J{\"u}ri Allik and Attia, {John R.} and Stefania Bandinelli and Fran{\cc}ois Bastardot and Jonathan Beauchamp and Bennett, {David A.} and Klaus Berger and Bierut, {Laura J.} and Boomsma, {Dorret I.} and Ute B{\"u}ltmann and Harry Campbell and Chabris, {Christopher F.} and Lynn Cherkas and Chung, {Mina K.} and Francesco Cucca and {De Andrade}, Mariza and {De Jager}, {Philip L.} and {De Neve}, {Jan Emmanuel} and Deary, {Ian J.} and Dedoussis, {George V.} and Panos Deloukas and Maria Dimitriou and Guon{\'y} Eir{\'i}ksd{\'o}ttir and Elderson, {Martin F.} and Eriksson, {Johan G.} and Evans, {David M.} and Faul, {Jessica D.} and Luigi Ferrucci and Garcia, {Melissa E.} and Henrik Gr{\"o}nberg and Vilmundur Guonason and Per Hall and Harris, {Juliette M.} and Harris, {Tamara B.} and Hastie, {Nicholas D.} and Heath, {Andrew C.} and Hernandez, {Dena G.} and Wolfgang Hoffmann and Adriaan Hofman and Rolf Holle and Holliday, {Elizabeth G.} and Hottenga, {Jouke Jan} and Iacono, {William G.} and Thomas Illig and J{\"a}rvelin, {Marjo Riitta} and Mika K{\"a}h{\"o}nen and Jaakko Kaprio and Kirkpatrick, {Robert M.} and Matthew Kowgier and Antti Latvala and Launer, {Lenore J.} and Lawlor, {Debbie A.} and Terho Lehtim{\"a}ki and Jingmei Li and Paul Lichtenstein and Peter Lichtner and Liewald, {David C.} and Madden, {Pamela A.} and Magnusson, {Patrik K E} and M{\"a}kinen, {Tomi E.} and Marco Masala and Matt McGue and Andres Metspalu and Andreas Mielck and Miller, {Michael B.} and Montgomery, {Grant W.} and Sutapa Mukherjee and Nyholt, {Dale R.} and Oostra, {Ben A.} and Palmer, {Lyle J.} and Aarno Palotie and Penninx, {Brenda W J H} and Markus Perola and Peyser, {Patricia A.} and Martin Preisig and Katri R{\"a}ikk{\"o}nen and Raitakari, {Olli T.} and Anu Realo and Ring, {Susan M.} and Samuli Ripatti and Fernando Rivadeneira and Igor Rudan and Aldo Rustichini and Veikko Salomaa and Sarin, {Antti Pekka} and David Schlessinger and Scott, {Rodney J.} and Harold Snieder and {St Pourcain}, Beate and Starr, {John M.} and Sul, {Jae Hoon} and Ida Surakka and Rauli Svento and Alexander Teumer and Henning Tiemeier and {Van Rooij}, {Frank J A} and {Van Wagoner}, {David R.} and Erkki Vartiainen and Jorma Viikari and Peter Vollenweider and Vonk, {Judith M.} and G{\'e}rard Waeber and Weir, {David R.} and Wichmann, {H. Erich} and Elisabeth Widen and Gonneke Willemsen and Wilson, {James F.} and Wright, {Alan F.} and Dalton Conley and George Davey-Smith and Lude Franke and Groenen, {Patrick J F} and Albert Hofman and Magnus Johannesson and Kardia, {Sharon L R} and Krueger, {Robert F.} and David Laibson and Martin, {Nicholas G.} and Meyer, {Michelle N.} and Danielle Posthuma and Thurik, {A. Roy} and Timpson, {Nicholas J.} and Uitterlinden, {Andr{\'e} G.} and {Van Duijn}, {Cornelia M.} and Visscher, {Peter M.} and Benjamin, {Daniel J.} and David Cesarini and Koellinger, {Philipp D.}",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1126/science.1235488",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "340",
pages = "1467--1471",
journal = "Science",
issn = "0036-8075",
publisher = "American Association for the Advancement of Science",
number = "6139",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment

AU - Rietveld, Cornelius A.

AU - Medland, Sarah E.

AU - Derringer, Jaime

AU - Yang, Jian

AU - Esko, Tõnu

AU - Martin, Nicolas W.

AU - Westra, Harm Jan

AU - Shakhbazov, Konstantin

AU - Abdellaoui, Abdel

AU - Agrawal, Arpana

AU - Albrecht, Eva

AU - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

AU - Amin, Najaf

AU - Barnard, John

AU - Baumeister, Sebastian E.

AU - Benke, Kelly

AU - Bielak, Lawrence F.

AU - Boatman, Jeffrey A.

AU - Boyle, Patricia A.

AU - Davies, Gail

AU - De Leeuw, Christiaan

AU - Eklund, Niina

AU - Evans, Daniel S.

AU - Ferhmann, Rudolf

AU - Fischer, Krista

AU - Gieger, Christian

AU - Gjessing, Håkon K.

AU - Hägg, Sara

AU - Harris, Jennifer R.

AU - Hayward, Caroline

AU - Holzapfel, Christina

AU - Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.

AU - Ingelsson, Erik

AU - Jacobsson, Bo

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PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R2≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

AB - A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R2≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84879271608&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84879271608&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1126/science.1235488

DO - 10.1126/science.1235488

M3 - Article

VL - 340

SP - 1467

EP - 1471

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 6139

ER -