Growth failure remains an important problem for children with kidney disease secondary to medical kidney disease or urologic disorders. In children with chronic kidney disease, growth remains suboptimal even with energy intake above 80% of the recommend daily allowance. Adults who had chronic kidney disease as children frequently report dissatisfaction with final adult height. Additionally, growth failure in children with end-stage renal disease is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, including more frequent hospitalizations and increased mortality. This review describes the prevalence and morbidity associated with growth retardation in US children with chronic kidney disease. Additionally, available strategies to optimize growth and nutrition and current controversies in nutritional management and assessment of nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease are discussed.
- Chronic kidney disease
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