Greater delay discounting among girls, but not boys, with ADHD correlates with cognitive control

Connor H.G. Patros, Kristie L. Sweeney, E. Mark Mahone, Stewart H. Mostofsky, Keri S. Rosch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i.e., Go/No-Go task, Stop Signal task, and Spatial Span task) and delay discounting (i.e., Classic Delay Discounting and Real-Time Delay Discounting tasks), as well as the relationship between these measures. Results indicated that sex moderated the effects of group on task performance. Specifically, girls with ADHD, but not boys with the disorder, exhibited atypical delay discounting of real-time rewards. Results from correlational analyses indicated that delay discounting and cognitive control were not significantly correlated in the overall sample. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that among girls with ADHD poorer spatial working memory and inhibitory control predicted greater real-time discounting. Collectively, findings provide support for distinct patterns of cognitive control and delay discounting among school-aged girls and boys with ADHD. Additionally, findings suggest that among girls with ADHD, those who exhibit relatively poor working memory and inhibitory control might be a particularly vulnerable subgroup with the greatest propensity to exhibit maladaptive decision-making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalChild Neuropsychology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Aug 4 2017

Fingerprint

Delay Discounting
Reward
Short-Term Memory
Decision Making
Task Performance and Analysis
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Neurosciences
Regression Analysis
Spatial Memory

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • cognitive control
  • decision-making
  • delay discounting
  • executive function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Medicine(all)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Greater delay discounting among girls, but not boys, with ADHD correlates with cognitive control. / Patros, Connor H.G.; Sweeney, Kristie L.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Rosch, Keri S.

In: Child Neuropsychology, 04.08.2017, p. 1-21.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Patros, Connor H.G.; Sweeney, Kristie L.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Rosch, Keri S. / Greater delay discounting among girls, but not boys, with ADHD correlates with cognitive control.

In: Child Neuropsychology, 04.08.2017, p. 1-21.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{3ba0093c65234ce68e08b82f26d26d5a,
title = "Greater delay discounting among girls, but not boys, with ADHD correlates with cognitive control",
abstract = "Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i.e., Go/No-Go task, Stop Signal task, and Spatial Span task) and delay discounting (i.e., Classic Delay Discounting and Real-Time Delay Discounting tasks), as well as the relationship between these measures. Results indicated that sex moderated the effects of group on task performance. Specifically, girls with ADHD, but not boys with the disorder, exhibited atypical delay discounting of real-time rewards. Results from correlational analyses indicated that delay discounting and cognitive control were not significantly correlated in the overall sample. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that among girls with ADHD poorer spatial working memory and inhibitory control predicted greater real-time discounting. Collectively, findings provide support for distinct patterns of cognitive control and delay discounting among school-aged girls and boys with ADHD. Additionally, findings suggest that among girls with ADHD, those who exhibit relatively poor working memory and inhibitory control might be a particularly vulnerable subgroup with the greatest propensity to exhibit maladaptive decision-making.",
keywords = "ADHD, cognitive control, decision-making, delay discounting, executive function",
author = "Patros, {Connor H.G.} and Sweeney, {Kristie L.} and Mahone, {E. Mark} and Mostofsky, {Stewart H.} and Rosch, {Keri S.}",
year = "2017",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1080/09297049.2017.1359525",
pages = "1--21",
journal = "Child Neuropsychology",
issn = "0929-7049",
publisher = "Psychology Press Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Greater delay discounting among girls, but not boys, with ADHD correlates with cognitive control

AU - Patros,Connor H.G.

AU - Sweeney,Kristie L.

AU - Mahone,E. Mark

AU - Mostofsky,Stewart H.

AU - Rosch,Keri S.

PY - 2017/8/4

Y1 - 2017/8/4

N2 - Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i.e., Go/No-Go task, Stop Signal task, and Spatial Span task) and delay discounting (i.e., Classic Delay Discounting and Real-Time Delay Discounting tasks), as well as the relationship between these measures. Results indicated that sex moderated the effects of group on task performance. Specifically, girls with ADHD, but not boys with the disorder, exhibited atypical delay discounting of real-time rewards. Results from correlational analyses indicated that delay discounting and cognitive control were not significantly correlated in the overall sample. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that among girls with ADHD poorer spatial working memory and inhibitory control predicted greater real-time discounting. Collectively, findings provide support for distinct patterns of cognitive control and delay discounting among school-aged girls and boys with ADHD. Additionally, findings suggest that among girls with ADHD, those who exhibit relatively poor working memory and inhibitory control might be a particularly vulnerable subgroup with the greatest propensity to exhibit maladaptive decision-making.

AB - Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i.e., Go/No-Go task, Stop Signal task, and Spatial Span task) and delay discounting (i.e., Classic Delay Discounting and Real-Time Delay Discounting tasks), as well as the relationship between these measures. Results indicated that sex moderated the effects of group on task performance. Specifically, girls with ADHD, but not boys with the disorder, exhibited atypical delay discounting of real-time rewards. Results from correlational analyses indicated that delay discounting and cognitive control were not significantly correlated in the overall sample. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that among girls with ADHD poorer spatial working memory and inhibitory control predicted greater real-time discounting. Collectively, findings provide support for distinct patterns of cognitive control and delay discounting among school-aged girls and boys with ADHD. Additionally, findings suggest that among girls with ADHD, those who exhibit relatively poor working memory and inhibitory control might be a particularly vulnerable subgroup with the greatest propensity to exhibit maladaptive decision-making.

KW - ADHD

KW - cognitive control

KW - decision-making

KW - delay discounting

KW - executive function

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026882936&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026882936&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/09297049.2017.1359525

DO - 10.1080/09297049.2017.1359525

M3 - Article

SP - 1

EP - 21

JO - Child Neuropsychology

T2 - Child Neuropsychology

JF - Child Neuropsychology

SN - 0929-7049

ER -